Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications / Edition 3

Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications / Edition 3

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Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications / Edition 3

Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition, provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this successful textbook focuses on recent developments in techniques and applications. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on practical application examples. As with previous editions, it contains numerous tables of useful data, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding.

Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications, Third Edition, will prove invaluable to undergraduates and postgraduates using MS in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, materials science and food science. It will also appeal to researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470033104
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 11/16/2007
Edition description: REV
Pages: 502
Product dimensions: 6.85(w) x 9.94(h) x 1.28(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Introduction     1
Principles     1
Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer     4
History     5
Ion Free Path     10
Ion Sources     15
Electron Ionization     15
Chemical Ionization     17
Proton transfer     19
Adduct formation     21
Charge-transfer chemical ionization     21
Reagent gas     22
Negative ion formation     25
Desorption chemical ionization     27
Field Ionization     28
Fast Atom Bombardment and Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry     29
Field Desorption     31
Plasma Desorption     32
Laser Desorption     33
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization     33
Principle of MALDI     33
Practical considerations     36
Fragmentations     39
Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization     39
Thermospray     41
Atmospheric Pressure Ionization     42
Electrospray     43
Multiply charged ions     46
Electrochemistry and electric field as origins ofmultiply charged ions     48
Sensitivity to concentration     50
Limitation of ion current from the source by the electrochemical process     51
Practical considerations     54
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization     55
Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization     56
Atmospheric Pressure Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry     61
Desorption electrospray ionization     61
Direct analysis in real time     62
Inorganic Ionization Sources     65
Thermal ionization source     65
Spark source     67
Glow discharge source     68
Inductively coupled plasma source     69
Practical considerations     71
Gas-Phase Ion-Molecule Reactions     72
Formation and Fragmentation of Ions: Basic Rules     76
Electron ionization and photoionization under vacuum     77
Ionization at low pressure or at atmospheric pressure     77
Proton transfer     77
Adduct formation     78
Formation of aggregates or clusters     79
Reactions at the interface between source and analyser     79
Mass Analysers     85
Quadrupole Analysers      88
Description     88
Equations of motion     91
Ion guide and collision cell     96
Spectrometers with several quadrupoles in tandem     98
Ion Trap Analysers     100
The 3D ion trap     100
The 2D ion trap     117
The Electrostatic Trap or 'Orbitrap'     122
Time-of-Flight Analysers     126
Linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer     126
Delayed pulsed extraction     129
Reflectrons     131
Tandem mass spectrometry with time-of-flight analyser     134
Orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight instruments     139
Magnetic and Electromagnetic Analysers     143
Action of the magnetic field     143
Electrostatic field     144
Dispersion and resolution     145
Practical considerations     146
Tandem mass spectrometry in electromagnetic analysers     149
Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry     157
General principle     157
Ion cyclotron resonance     159
Fourier transform mass spectrometry     159
MS[superscript n] in ICR/FTMS instruments     164
Hybrid Instruments      164
Electromagnetic analysers coupled to quadrupoles or ion trap     165
Ion trap analyser combined with time-of-flight or ion cyclotron resonance     166
Hybrids including time-of-flight with orthogonal acceleration     167
Detectors and Computers     175
Detectors     175
Photographic plate     176
Faraday cup     176
Electron multipliers     177
Electro-optical ion detectors     181
Computers     182
Functions     183
Instrumentation     183
Data acquisition     183
Data conversion     186
Data reduction     186
Library search     186
Tandem Mass Spectrometry     189
Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Space or in Time     189
Tandem Mass Spectrometry Scan Modes     192
Collision-Activated Decomposition or Collision-Induced Dissociation     195
Collision energy conversion to internal energy     196
High-energy collision (keV)     198
Low-energy collision (between 1 and 100 eV)     199
Other Methods of Ion Activation     199
Reactions Studied in MS/MS     202
Tandem Mass Spectrometry Applications      204
Structure elucidation     205
Selective detection of target compound class     207
Ion-molecule reaction     210
The kinetic method     211
Mass Spectrometry/Chromatography Coupling     217
Elution Chromatography Coupling Techniques     218
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry     219
Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry     221
Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry     228
Chromatography Data Acquisition Modes     228
Data Recording and Treatment     230
Data recording     230
Instrument control and treatment of results     232
Analytical Information     243
Mass Spectrometry Spectral Collections     243
High Resolution     245
Information at different resolving powers     249
Determination of the elemental composition     251
Isotopic Abundances     251
Low-mass Fragments and Lost Neutrals     257
Number of Rings or Unsaturations     258
Mass and Electron Parities, Closed-shell Ions and Open-shell Ions     259
Electron parity     259
Mass parity     259
Relationship between mass and electron parity      260
Quantitative Data     260
Specificity     260
Sensitivity and detection limit     262
External standard method     264
Sources of error     265
Internal standard method     266
Isotopic dilution method     268
Fragmentation Reactions     273
Electron Ionization and Fragmentation Rates     273
Quasi-Equilibrium and RRKM Theory     275
Ionization and Appearance Energies     279
Fragmentation Reactions of Positive Ions     280
Fragmentation of odd-electron cations or radical cations (OE[superscript [middle dot]+])     280
Fragmentation of cations with an even number of electrons (EE[superscript +])     286
Fragmentations obeying the parity rule     288
Fragmentations not obeying the parity rule     291
Fragmentation Reactions of Negative Ions     291
Fragmentation mechanisms of even electron anions (EE[superscript -])     292
Fragmentation mechanisms of radical anions (OE[superscript [middle dot]-])     293
Charge Remote Fragmentation     293
Spectrum Interpretation     294
Typical ions     296
Presence of the molecular ion     296
Typical neutrals     296
A few examples of the interpretation of mass spectra     298
Analysis of Biomolecules     305
Biomolecules and Mass Spectrometry     305
Proteins and Peptides     306
ESI and MALDI     307
Structure and sequence determination using fragmentation     309
Applications     324
Oligonucleotides     342
Mass spectra of oligonucleotides     343
Applications of mass spectrometry to oligonucleotides     346
Fragmentation of oligonucleotides     351
Characterization of modified oligonucleotides     355
Oligosaccharides     357
Mass spectra of oligosaccharides     358
Fragmentation of oligosaccharides     360
Degradation of oligosaccharides coupled with mass spectrometry     367
Lipids     371
Fatty acids     373
Acylglycerols     376
Bile acids     382
Metabolomics     386
Mass spectrometry in metabolomics     387
Applications     388
Exercises     403
Questions     403
Answers     415
Appendices     437
Nomenclature      437
Units     437
Definitions     437
Analysers     438
Detection     439
Ionization     440
Ion types     441
Ion-molecule reaction     442
Fragmentation     442
Acronyms and abbreviations     442
Fundamental Physical Constants     446
Table of Isotopes in Ascending Mass Order     447
Table of Isotopes in Alphabetical Order     452
Isotopic Abundances (in %) for Various Elemental Compositions CHON     457
Gas-Phase Ion Thermochemical Data of Molecules     467
Gas-Phase Ion Thermochemical Data of Radicals     469
Literature on Mass Spectrometry     470
Mass Spectrometry on Internet     476
Index     479

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