MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

by James S. Walker

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MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

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ISBN-13: 9780321641328
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 06/16/2009
Edition description: Student
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

    James S. Walker James Walker obtained his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of Washington in 1978. He subsequently served as a post-doc at the University of Pennsylvania, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of California at San Diego before joining the physics faculty at Washington State University in 1983. Professor Walker’s research interests include statistical mechanics, critical phenomena, and chaos. His many publications on the application of renormalization-group theory to systems ranging from absorbed monolayers to binary-fluid mixtures have appeared in Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physica, and a host of other publications. He has also participated in observations on the summit of Mauna Kea, looking for evidence of extra-solar planets.

    Jim Walker likes to work with students at all levels, from judging elementary school science fairs to writing research papers

with graduate students, and has taught introductory physics for many years. His enjoyment of this course and his empathy for students have earned him a reputation as an innovative, enthusiastic, and effective teacher. Jim’s educational publications include “Reappearing Phases” (Scientific American, May 1987) as well as articles in the American

Journal of Physics and The Physics Teacher. In recognition of his contributions to theteaching of physics, Jim was named Boeing Distinguished Professor of Science and Mathematics Education for 2001—2003.

    When he is not writing, conducting research, teaching, or developing new classroom demonstrations and pedagogical materials, Jim enjoys amateur astronomy, bird watching, photography, juggling, unicycling, boogie boarding, and kayaking. Jim is also an avid jazz pianist and organist. He has served as ballpark organist for several Class A minor league baseball teams, including minor league affiliates of the Seattle Mariners and San Francisco Giants.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface: To the Instructor

Teaching any subject can be a most challenging-and rewarding-experience. This is particularly true of the introductory algebra-based physics course, where students with a wide range of backgrounds and interests participate in a unique learning experience. With only a limited time at our disposal, we, the instructors, strive not only to convey the basic concepts and fundamental laws of physics, but also to give students an appreciation of its relevance and appeal. This is a tall order, but one that is well worth the effort.

To help with the task, this text incorporates a number of unique and innovative pedagogical features. These features, which evolved from years of teaching experience, have been tested extensively in the classroom and refined on the basis of interviews and discussions with students. The enthusiastic response I receive from students using this material has encouraged by belief that your students, like mine, will find the presentation of physics given in this text to be clear, engaging, and empowering.

Learning Tools in the Text

The goal of this text is to help students improve their conceptual understanding of physics hand in hand with the development of their problem-solving skills. One of the chief means to that end is the replacement of the traditional Examples in the text by an integrated suite of learning tools: fully worked Examples in Two-Column Format, Active Examples, Conceptual Checkpoints, and Exercises. Each of these tools performs some of the functions of an Example, but each is specialized to meet the needs of students at a particular point in the development of thechapter's content.

These needs are not always the same. Sometimes students require a detailed explanation of how to tackle a particular problem; at other times, they must be allowed to take an active role and work out the details for themselves. Sometimes it is important for them to perform calculations and concentrate on numerical precision; at other times it may be more fruitful for them to explore a key idea more fully in a non-quantitative context. Sometimes the analysis of a detailed physical context is essential; at other times, practice in using a new equation or relationship is all that is called for.

A good teacher can sense when students need a very patient exposition and when they need only minimal reinforcement; when they need to focus on concepts and when they need an opportunity to practice their quantitative skills. This text attempts to mimic the teaching style of successful instructors by providing the right tool at the right time and place.

Worked Examples in Two-Column Format

Examples provide the most complete and detailed illustration of how to solve a particular type of problem. The Examples in this text are presented in a unique two-column format that focuses on the basic strategies and thought processes involved in problem living. The aim of this approach is to help students devise a strategy to be followed and then implement a clear step-by-step solution to the problem. The emphasis is thus on the relationship between the physical concepts and their mathematical expression. This focus on the intimate relationship between conceptual insights and problem-solving techniques encourages student to view the ability to solve a problems as a logical outgrowth of conceptual understanding rather than a kind of parlor trick.

Each Example has the same basic structure:

  • Picture the Problem: The first, crucial element in this structure is Picture the Problem, which discusses how the physical situation can be represented visually and what such a representation can tell us about how to analyze and solve the problem. At this stage we set up a coordinate system where appropriate, label important quantities, and indicate which values are known.
  • Strategy: Closely linked with this visualization process is the formulation of a Strategy to be followed in solving the problem. The strategy addresses the commonly asked question, "How do I get started?" by providing a clear overview of the problem and helping students to identify the relevant physical principles.It then guides the student in using known relationships to chart a step-by-step path to the solution.
  • Solution: In the step-by-step Solution of the problem, each of the steps is presented with a prose statement in the left-hand column and the corresponding mathematical implementation in the right-hand column. In effect, each step shows how to translate the idea described in words into the appropriate equations.

    When reviewing an Example, note that the left-hand column gives the flow of ideas used in the solution; the right-hand column gives the mathematical calculations that were carried out. Students often find it useful to practice pbolem solving by covering one column of an Example with a sheet of paper and filling in the covered steps as they refer to the other column.

  • Insight Each example wraps up with an Insight--a comment regarding the solution just obtained. Some insights deal with possible alternative solution techniques, others with new ideas suggested by the results.
  • Practice Problem Following the Insight is a Practice Proble, which gives the student a chance to practice the type of calculation just presented. The Practice Problems, always accompanied by their answers, provide students with a valuable check on their understanding of the material. Finally, each Example ends with a reference to some related end-of-chapter problems to allow students to test their skills further.
  • Table of Contents

    Contents

     

    Applications in the Text               xxi

     

    Preface: To the Instructor           xxv

     

    Preface: To the Student               xxxix

     

    Guide to Features of the Text    xl

     

     

    1       Introduction to Physics                1

     

    1-1    Physics and the Laws of Nature     2

     

    1-2    Units of Length, Mass, and Time    2

     

    1-3    Dimensional Analysis    4       

     

    1-4    Significant Figures       5

     

    1-5    Converting Units          8

     

    1-6    Order-of-Magnitude Calculations    10

     

    1-7    Scalars and Vectors     11

     

    1-8    Problem Solving in Physics    11

     

            Chapter Summary       13

     

            Conceptual Questions           14

     

            Conceptual Exercises   14

     

            Problems    14

     

     

    PART I   MECHANICS

     

    2       One-Dimensional Kinematics     17

     

    2-1    Position, Distance, and Displacement      18

     

    2-2    Average Speed and Velocity          19

    2-3    Instantaneous Velocity         23

     

    2-4    Acceleration       25

     

    2-5    Motion with Constant Acceleration  29

     

    2-6    Applications of the Equations of Motion   35

     

    2-7    Freely Falling Objects            37

     

            Chapter Summary       43

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    45

     

            Conceptual Questions           46

     

            Conceptual Exercises           46

     

            Problems            47

     

     

    3       Vectors in Physics               57

     

    3-1    Scalars Versus Vectors         58

     

    3-2    The Components of a Vector         58

     

    3-3    Adding and Subtracting Vectors     63

     

    3-4    Unit Vectors        66

     

    3-5    Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors 67            

    3-6    Relative Motion   71

     

    Chapter Summary       73

     

    Problem-Solving Summary    74

     

    Conceptual Questions           74

     

    Conceptual Exercises   75

     

    Problems    75

     

    4       Two-Dimensional Kinematics              81

     

    4-1    Motion in Two Dimensions     82

     

    4-2    Projectile Motion: Basic Equations  85

     

    4-3    Zero Launch Angle       86

     

    4-4    General Launch Angle          91

     

    4-5    Projective Motion: Key Characteristics    95

     

           

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    101

     

            Conceptual Questions            101

     

            Conceptual Exercises           102

     

            Problems            103

     

     

    5       Newton’s Laws of Motion            109

     

    5-1    Force and Mass           110

     

    5-2    Newton’s First Law of Motion         110

     

    5-3    Newton’s Second Law of Motion     112

     

    5-4    Newton’s Third Law of Motion                120

     

    5-5    The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions    123

     

    5-6    Weight       126

     

    5-7    Normal Forces    130

     

    Chapter Summary       134

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    135

     

            Conceptual Questions           135

     

            Conceptual Exercises           137

     

            Problems            138

     

     

    6       Applications of Newton’s Laws           143

     

    6-1    Frictional Forces          144

     

    6-2    Strings and Springs      152

     

    6-3    Translational Equilibrium       156

     

    6-4    Connected Objects      160

     

    6-5    Circular Motion            164

     

            Chapter Summary       169

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    170

     

            Conceptual Questions            170

     

            Conceptual Exercises           171

     

            Problems            172

     

     

    7       Work and Kinetic Energy             179

     

    7-1    Work Done by a Constant Force     180

     

    7-2    Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem         186

     

    7-3    Work Done by a Variable Force     190

     

    7-4    Power        195

     

             Chapter Summary       197

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    198

     

            Conceptual Questions           199

     

            Conceptual Exercises           199

     

            Problems            200

     

     

    8       Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy     205

     

    8-1    Conservative and Nonconservative Forces       206

     

    8-2    Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces      209

     

    8-3    Conservation of Mechanical Energy                215

     

    8-4    Work Done by Nonconservative Forces   223

     

    8-5    Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials      228

     

            Chapter Summary       231

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    232

     

            Conceptual Questions           232

     

            Conceptual Exercises           233

     

            Problems            234

     

     

    9       Linear Momentum and Collisions        241

     

    9-1    Linear Momentum       242

     

    9-2    Momentum and Newton’s Second Law    244

     

    9-3    Impulse     245

     

    9-4    Conservation of Linear Momentum         249

     

    9-5    Inelastic Collisions        254

     

    9-6    Elastic Collisions          260

     

    9-7    Center of Mass            265

     

    *9-8  Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion       270

     

            Chapter Summary       272

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    274

     

            Conceptual Questions           274

     

            Conceptual Exercises           275

     

            Problems            276

     

     

    10     Rotational Kinematics and Energy               283

     

    10-1  Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration             284

     

    10-2  Rotational Kinematics           288

     

    10-3  Connections Between Linear and Rotational Quantities       291

     

    10-4  Rolling Motion     296

     

    10-5  Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia         297

     

    10-6  Conservation of Energy                301

     

    Chapter Summary       306

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    308

     

            Conceptual Questions           309

     

            Conceptual Exercises           309

     

            Problems            310

     

     

    11     Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium        317

     

    11-1  Torque       318

     

    11-2  Torque and Angular Acceleration    321

     

    11-3  Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium         325

     

    11-4  Center of Mass and Balance  332

     

    11-5  Dynamic Applications of Torque     335

     

    11-6  Angular Momentum     337

     

    11-7  Conservation of Angular Momentum       340

     

    11-8  Rotational Work and Power           345

     

    *11-9          The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion         346

     

            Chapter Summary       348

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    350

     

            Conceptual Questions           350

     

            Conceptual Exercises           350

     

            Problems            352

     

     

    12     Gravity                360

     

    12-1  Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation     361

     

    12-2  Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies      364

     

    12-3  Kepler’s Laws of Orbital Motion      369

     

    12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy        376

     

    12-5  Energy Conservation            379

     

    *12-6          Tides       386

     

            Chapter Summary       388

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    390

     

            Conceptual Questions           390

     

            Conceptual Exercises           390

     

            Problems            391

     

     

    13     Oscillations About Equilibrium            396

     

    13-1  Periodic Motion           397

     

    13-2  Simple Harmonic Motion       398

     

    13-3  Connections Between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion          401

     

    13-4  The Period of a Mass on a Spring           407

     

    13-5  Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion       411

     

    13-6  The Pendulum             414

     

    13-7  Damped Oscillations             420

     

    13-8  Driven Oscillations and Resonance          421

     

            Chapter Summary       423

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    425

     

            Conceptual Questions           425

     

            Conceptual Exercises           426

     

            Problems            427

     

     

    14     Waves and Sound                433

     

    14-1      Types of Waves          434

     

    14-2      Waves on a String       436

     

    *14-3          Harmonic Wave Functions           439

     

    14-4      Sound Waves              440

     

    14-5      Sound Intensity           444

     

    14-6      The Doppler Effect               449

     

    14-7      Superposition and Interference              455

     

    14-8       Standing Waves          458

     

    14-9      Beats                 466

     

    Chapter Summary       468

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    470

     

            Conceptual Questions           470

     

            Conceptual Exercises           470  

     

            Problems    471  

     

     

    15          Fluids          479

     

    15-1      Density              480

     

    15-2      Pressure            480

     

    15-3      Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth        484

     

    15-4      Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy               489

     

    15-5      Applications of Archimedes’ Principle                491

     

    15-6      Fluid Flow and Continuity              496

     

    15-7      Bernoulli’s Equation              498

     

    15-8      Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation         501

     

    *15-9          Viscosity and Surface Tension              504

            Chapter Summary       507

     

            Problem-Solving Summary            509

     

            Conceptual Questions           509  

     

            Conceptual Exercises           510  

     

            Problems            511

     

     

    PART II  THERMAL PHYSICS

     

    16             Temperature and Heat       517

     

    16-1      Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               518

     

    16-2      Temperature Scales     519

     

    16-3      Thermal Expansion              523

     

    16-4      Heat and Mechanical Work            529

     

    16-5      Specific Heats             531

     

    16-6      Conduction, Convection, and Radiation            534

     

    Chapter Summary       542

     

             Problem-Solving Summary            544

     

            Conceptual Questions           544  

     

            Conceptual Exercises           545  

     

            Problems                    546  

     

     

    17             Phases and Phase Changes                  551

     

    17-1      Ideal Gases                552

     

    17-2      Kinetic Theory             558

     

    17-3      Solids and Elastic Deformation               563

     

    17-4      Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation         568

     

    17-5      Latent Heats               574

     

    17-6      Phase Changes and Energy Conservation        577

     

    Chapter Summary               579

     

            Problem-Solving Summary            581

     

            Conceptual Questions           581

     

            Conceptual Exercises           582

     

            Problems            582

     

     

    18             The Laws of Thermodynamics             588

     

    18-1      The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               589

     

    18-2      The First Law of Thermodynamics          589

     

    18-3      Thermal Processes               594

     

    18-4  Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume  599  

     

    18-5      The Second Law of Thermodynamics              603

     

    18-6      Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle         603

     

    18-7      Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps               607

     

    18-8      Entropy              611

     

    18-9      Order, Disorder, and Entropy        615

     

    18-10   The Third Law of Thermodynamics       617

     

    Chapter Summary       618

     

            Problem-Solving Summary            620

     

            Conceptual Questions           620

     

            Conceptual Exercises           621

     

            Problems            622

     

     

    PART III       ELECTROMAGNETISM

     

    19     Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields            625

     

    19-1  Electric Charge            626

     

    19-2  Insulators and Conductors     629

     

    19-3  Coulomb’s Law            630

     

    19-4  The Electric Field          637

     

    19-5  Electric Field Lines                       643

     

    19-6  Shielding and Charging by Induction       646

     

    19-7  Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law        649

     

            Chapter Summary       653

     

            Problem-Solving Summary            654

     

            Conceptual Questions           655

     

            Conceptual Exercises           655

     

             Problems            657

     

     

    20     Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy  662

     

    20-1  Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential    663

     

    20-2  Energy Conservation            666

     

    20-3  The Electric Potential of Point Charges    669

     

    20-4  Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field     673

     

    20-5  Capacitors and Dielectrics     677

     

    20-6  Electrical Energy Storage      683

     

            Chapter Summary       685

     

            Problem-Solving Summary            687

     

            Conceptual Questions           687

     

            Conceptual Exercises           688

     

            Problems            689

     

     

    21     Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits        695

     

    21-1  Electric Current           696

     

    21-2  Resistance and Ohm’s Law            702

     

    21-3  Energy and Power in Electric Circuits      705

     

    21-4  Resistors in Series and Parallel       708

     

    21-5  Kirchoff’s Rules           714

     

    21-6  Circuits Containing Capacitors                717

     

    21-7  RC Circuits          720

     

    *21-8  ;       Anmeters and Voltmeters            723

     

    Chapter Summary       724

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    726

     

            Conceptual Questions           727

     

            Conceptual Exercises           727

     

            Problems            729

     

     

    22     Magnetism                   735

     

    21-1  The Magnetic Field               736

     

    22-2  The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges  738

     

    22-3  The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field          742

     

    22-4      The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire    747

     

    22-5  Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque     749

     

    22-6  Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère’s Law                751

     

    22-7  Current Loops and Solenoids         755

     

    22-8  Magnetism in Matter            758

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    23     Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction             771

     

    23-1  Induced Electromotive Force         772

     

    23-2  Magnetic Flux     773

     

    23-3  Faraday’s Law of Induction           775

     

    23-4  Lenz’s Law          778

     

    23-5  Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy           781

     

    23-6  Generators and Motors         784

     

    23-7  Inductance         787

    23-8  RL Circuits          790

     

    23-9  Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field          791

     

    23-10        Transformers             793

     

    Chapter Summary       796

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    798

     

            Conceptual Questions   798

     

            Conceptual Exercises   799

     

            Problems    800

     

     

    24     Alternating-Current Circuits                 806

     

    24-1  Alternating Voltages and Currents          807

     

    24-2  Capacitors in AC Circuits               812

     

    24-3  RC Circuits          815

     

    24-4  Inductors in AC Circuits        820

     

    24-5  RLC Circuits        823

     

    24-6  Resonance in Electrical Circuits      827

     

    Chapter Summary       832

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    834

     

            Conceptual Questions   834

     

            Conceptual Exercises   864

     

            Problems    835

     

     

    PART IV LIGHT AND OPTICS   25     Electromagnetic Waves

     

    25-1      The Production of Electromagnetic Waves

     

    25-2      The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

     

    25-3      The Electromagnetic Spectrum

     

    25-4      Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves

     

    25-5      Polarization

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    26             Geometrical Optics

     

    26-1      The Reflection of Light

     

    26-2      Forming Images with a Plane Mirror

     

    26-3  Spherical Mirrors

     

    26-4  Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation

     

    26-5      The Refraction of Light

     

    26-6      Ray Tracing for Lenses

     

    26-7      The Thin-Lens Equation

     

    26-8      Dispersion and the Rainbow

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    27             Optical Instruments

     

    27-1      The Human Eye and the Camera

     

    27-2      Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics

     

    27-3      The Magnifying Glass

     

    27-4      The Compound Microscope

     

    27-5      Telescopes

     

    27-6      Lens Aberrations

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    28             Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction

     

    28-1      Superposition and Interference

     

    28-2      Young’s Two-Slit Experiment

     

    28-3      Interference in Reflected Waves

     

    28-4      Diffraction

     

    28-5      Resolution

     

    28-6      Diffraction Gratings

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    PART V  MODERN PHYSICS

     

    29             Relativity

     

    29-1      The Postulates of Special Relativity

     

    29-2      The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation

     

    29-3      The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction

     

    29-4      The Relativistic Addition of Velocities

     

    29-5      Relativistic Momentum

     

    29-6      Relativistic Energy and E = mc2

     

    29-7      The Relativistic Universe

     

    29-8      General Relativity

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    30             Quantum Physics

     

    30-1      Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis of Quantized Energy

     

    30-2      Photons and the Photoelectric Effect

     

    30-3      The Mass and Momentum of a Photos

     

    30-4      Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect

     

    30-5      The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality

     

    30-6      The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

     

    30-7      Quantum Tunneling

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    31             Atomic Physics

     

    31-1      Early Models of the Atom

     

    31-2      The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen

     

    31-3      Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

     

    31-4      de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model

     

    31-5      The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom

     

    31-6      Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table

     

    31-7      Atomic Radiation

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

    32             Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation

     

    32-1      The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei

     

    32-2      Radioactivity

     

    32-3      Half-Life and Radioactive Dating

     

    32-4      Nuclear Binding Energy

     

    32-5      Nuclear Fission

     

    32-6      Nuclear Fusion

     

    32-7      Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics

     

    32-8      Elementary Particles

     

    32-9      Unified Forces and Cosmology

     

    Chapter Summary       760

     

            Problem-Solving Summary    763

     

            Conceptual Questions   763

     

            Conceptual Exercises   763

     

            Problems    765

     

     

    Appendices

     

    Appendix A

    Basic Mathematical Tools      A-1

     

    Appendix B

    Typical Values             A-11

     

    Appendix C

    Planetary Data            A-12

     

    Appendix D

    Elements of Electrical Circuits                A-13

     

    Appendix E

    Periodic Table of the Elements       A-14

     

    Appendix F

    Properties of Selected Isotopes      A-15

     

    Answers to Your Turn Problems     ANS-1

     

    Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions     ANS-21

     

    Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Exercises      ANS-28

     

    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems      ANS-35

     

    Photo Credits      P-1

     

    Index                I-1

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