MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

by James S. Walker

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MasteringPhysics with Pearson eText Student Access Kit for Physics / Edition 4

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ISBN-13: 9780321641328
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 06/16/2009
Edition description: Student
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

    James S. Walker James Walker obtained his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of Washington in 1978. He subsequently served as a post-doc at the University of Pennsylvania, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of California at San Diego before joining the physics faculty at Washington State University in 1983. Professor Walker’s research interests include statistical mechanics, critical phenomena, and chaos. His many publications on the application of renormalization-group theory to systems ranging from absorbed monolayers to binary-fluid mixtures have appeared in Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physica, and a host of other publications. He has also participated in observations on the summit of Mauna Kea, looking for evidence of extra-solar planets.

    Jim Walker likes to work with students at all levels, from judging elementary school science fairs to writing research papers

with graduate students, and has taught introductory physics for many years. His enjoyment of this course and his empathy for students have earned him a reputation as an innovative, enthusiastic, and effective teacher. Jim’s educational publications include “Reappearing Phases” (Scientific American, May 1987) as well as articles in the American

Journal of Physics and The Physics Teacher. In recognition of his contributions to theteaching of physics, Jim was named Boeing Distinguished Professor of Science and Mathematics Education for 2001—2003.

    When he is not writing, conducting research, teaching, or developing new classroom demonstrations and pedagogical materials, Jim enjoys amateur astronomy, bird watching, photography, juggling, unicycling, boogie boarding, and kayaking. Jim is also an avid jazz pianist and organist. He has served as ballpark organist for several Class A minor league baseball teams, including minor league affiliates of the Seattle Mariners and San Francisco Giants.

Read an Excerpt


Preface: To the Instructor

Teaching any subject can be a most challenging-and rewarding-experience. This is particularly true of the introductory algebra-based physics course, where students with a wide range of backgrounds and interests participate in a unique learning experience. With only a limited time at our disposal, we, the instructors, strive not only to convey the basic concepts and fundamental laws of physics, but also to give students an appreciation of its relevance and appeal. This is a tall order, but one that is well worth the effort.

To help with the task, this text incorporates a number of unique and innovative pedagogical features. These features, which evolved from years of teaching experience, have been tested extensively in the classroom and refined on the basis of interviews and discussions with students. The enthusiastic response I receive from students using this material has encouraged by belief that your students, like mine, will find the presentation of physics given in this text to be clear, engaging, and empowering.

Learning Tools in the Text

The goal of this text is to help students improve their conceptual understanding of physics hand in hand with the development of their problem-solving skills. One of the chief means to that end is the replacement of the traditional Examples in the text by an integrated suite of learning tools: fully worked Examples in Two-Column Format, Active Examples, Conceptual Checkpoints, and Exercises. Each of these tools performs some of the functions of an Example, but each is specialized to meet the needs of students at a particular point in the development of thechapter's content.

These needs are not always the same. Sometimes students require a detailed explanation of how to tackle a particular problem; at other times, they must be allowed to take an active role and work out the details for themselves. Sometimes it is important for them to perform calculations and concentrate on numerical precision; at other times it may be more fruitful for them to explore a key idea more fully in a non-quantitative context. Sometimes the analysis of a detailed physical context is essential; at other times, practice in using a new equation or relationship is all that is called for.

A good teacher can sense when students need a very patient exposition and when they need only minimal reinforcement; when they need to focus on concepts and when they need an opportunity to practice their quantitative skills. This text attempts to mimic the teaching style of successful instructors by providing the right tool at the right time and place.

Worked Examples in Two-Column Format

Examples provide the most complete and detailed illustration of how to solve a particular type of problem. The Examples in this text are presented in a unique two-column format that focuses on the basic strategies and thought processes involved in problem living. The aim of this approach is to help students devise a strategy to be followed and then implement a clear step-by-step solution to the problem. The emphasis is thus on the relationship between the physical concepts and their mathematical expression. This focus on the intimate relationship between conceptual insights and problem-solving techniques encourages student to view the ability to solve a problems as a logical outgrowth of conceptual understanding rather than a kind of parlor trick.

Each Example has the same basic structure:

  • Picture the Problem: The first, crucial element in this structure is Picture the Problem, which discusses how the physical situation can be represented visually and what such a representation can tell us about how to analyze and solve the problem. At this stage we set up a coordinate system where appropriate, label important quantities, and indicate which values are known.
  • Strategy: Closely linked with this visualization process is the formulation of a Strategy to be followed in solving the problem. The strategy addresses the commonly asked question, "How do I get started?" by providing a clear overview of the problem and helping students to identify the relevant physical principles.It then guides the student in using known relationships to chart a step-by-step path to the solution.
  • Solution: In the step-by-step Solution of the problem, each of the steps is presented with a prose statement in the left-hand column and the corresponding mathematical implementation in the right-hand column. In effect, each step shows how to translate the idea described in words into the appropriate equations.

    When reviewing an Example, note that the left-hand column gives the flow of ideas used in the solution; the right-hand column gives the mathematical calculations that were carried out. Students often find it useful to practice pbolem solving by covering one column of an Example with a sheet of paper and filling in the covered steps as they refer to the other column.

  • Insight Each example wraps up with an Insight--a comment regarding the solution just obtained. Some insights deal with possible alternative solution techniques, others with new ideas suggested by the results.
  • Practice Problem Following the Insight is a Practice Proble, which gives the student a chance to practice the type of calculation just presented. The Practice Problems, always accompanied by their answers, provide students with a valuable check on their understanding of the material. Finally, each Example ends with a reference to some related end-of-chapter problems to allow students to test their skills further.
  • Table of Contents



    Applications in the Text               xxi


    Preface: To the Instructor           xxv


    Preface: To the Student               xxxix


    Guide to Features of the Text    xl



    1       Introduction to Physics                1


    1-1    Physics and the Laws of Nature     2


    1-2    Units of Length, Mass, and Time    2


    1-3    Dimensional Analysis    4       


    1-4    Significant Figures       5


    1-5    Converting Units          8


    1-6    Order-of-Magnitude Calculations    10


    1-7    Scalars and Vectors     11


    1-8    Problem Solving in Physics    11


            Chapter Summary       13


            Conceptual Questions           14


            Conceptual Exercises   14


            Problems    14





    2       One-Dimensional Kinematics     17


    2-1    Position, Distance, and Displacement      18


    2-2    Average Speed and Velocity          19

    2-3    Instantaneous Velocity         23


    2-4    Acceleration       25


    2-5    Motion with Constant Acceleration  29


    2-6    Applications of the Equations of Motion   35


    2-7    Freely Falling Objects            37


            Chapter Summary       43


            Problem-Solving Summary    45


            Conceptual Questions           46


            Conceptual Exercises           46


            Problems            47



    3       Vectors in Physics               57


    3-1    Scalars Versus Vectors         58


    3-2    The Components of a Vector         58


    3-3    Adding and Subtracting Vectors     63


    3-4    Unit Vectors        66


    3-5    Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors 67            

    3-6    Relative Motion   71


    Chapter Summary       73


    Problem-Solving Summary    74


    Conceptual Questions           74


    Conceptual Exercises   75


    Problems    75


    4       Two-Dimensional Kinematics              81


    4-1    Motion in Two Dimensions     82


    4-2    Projectile Motion: Basic Equations  85


    4-3    Zero Launch Angle       86


    4-4    General Launch Angle          91


    4-5    Projective Motion: Key Characteristics    95




            Problem-Solving Summary    101


            Conceptual Questions            101


            Conceptual Exercises           102


            Problems            103



    5       Newton’s Laws of Motion            109


    5-1    Force and Mass           110


    5-2    Newton’s First Law of Motion         110


    5-3    Newton’s Second Law of Motion     112


    5-4    Newton’s Third Law of Motion                120


    5-5    The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions    123


    5-6    Weight       126


    5-7    Normal Forces    130


    Chapter Summary       134


            Problem-Solving Summary    135


            Conceptual Questions           135


            Conceptual Exercises           137


            Problems            138



    6       Applications of Newton’s Laws           143


    6-1    Frictional Forces          144


    6-2    Strings and Springs      152


    6-3    Translational Equilibrium       156


    6-4    Connected Objects      160


    6-5    Circular Motion            164


            Chapter Summary       169


            Problem-Solving Summary    170


            Conceptual Questions            170


            Conceptual Exercises           171


            Problems            172



    7       Work and Kinetic Energy             179


    7-1    Work Done by a Constant Force     180


    7-2    Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem         186


    7-3    Work Done by a Variable Force     190


    7-4    Power        195


             Chapter Summary       197


            Problem-Solving Summary    198


            Conceptual Questions           199


            Conceptual Exercises           199


            Problems            200



    8       Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy     205


    8-1    Conservative and Nonconservative Forces       206


    8-2    Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces      209


    8-3    Conservation of Mechanical Energy                215


    8-4    Work Done by Nonconservative Forces   223


    8-5    Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials      228


            Chapter Summary       231


            Problem-Solving Summary    232


            Conceptual Questions           232


            Conceptual Exercises           233


            Problems            234



    9       Linear Momentum and Collisions        241


    9-1    Linear Momentum       242


    9-2    Momentum and Newton’s Second Law    244


    9-3    Impulse     245


    9-4    Conservation of Linear Momentum         249


    9-5    Inelastic Collisions        254


    9-6    Elastic Collisions          260


    9-7    Center of Mass            265


    *9-8  Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion       270


            Chapter Summary       272


            Problem-Solving Summary    274


            Conceptual Questions           274


            Conceptual Exercises           275


            Problems            276



    10     Rotational Kinematics and Energy               283


    10-1  Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration             284


    10-2  Rotational Kinematics           288


    10-3  Connections Between Linear and Rotational Quantities       291


    10-4  Rolling Motion     296


    10-5  Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia         297


    10-6  Conservation of Energy                301


    Chapter Summary       306


            Problem-Solving Summary    308


            Conceptual Questions           309


            Conceptual Exercises           309


            Problems            310



    11     Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium        317


    11-1  Torque       318


    11-2  Torque and Angular Acceleration    321


    11-3  Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium         325


    11-4  Center of Mass and Balance  332


    11-5  Dynamic Applications of Torque     335


    11-6  Angular Momentum     337


    11-7  Conservation of Angular Momentum       340


    11-8  Rotational Work and Power           345


    *11-9          The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion         346


            Chapter Summary       348


            Problem-Solving Summary    350


            Conceptual Questions           350


            Conceptual Exercises           350


            Problems            352



    12     Gravity                360


    12-1  Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation     361


    12-2  Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies      364


    12-3  Kepler’s Laws of Orbital Motion      369


    12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy        376


    12-5  Energy Conservation            379


    *12-6          Tides       386


            Chapter Summary       388


            Problem-Solving Summary    390


            Conceptual Questions           390


            Conceptual Exercises           390


            Problems            391



    13     Oscillations About Equilibrium            396


    13-1  Periodic Motion           397


    13-2  Simple Harmonic Motion       398


    13-3  Connections Between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion          401


    13-4  The Period of a Mass on a Spring           407


    13-5  Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion       411


    13-6  The Pendulum             414


    13-7  Damped Oscillations             420


    13-8  Driven Oscillations and Resonance          421


            Chapter Summary       423


            Problem-Solving Summary    425


            Conceptual Questions           425


            Conceptual Exercises           426


            Problems            427



    14     Waves and Sound                433


    14-1      Types of Waves          434


    14-2      Waves on a String       436


    *14-3          Harmonic Wave Functions           439


    14-4      Sound Waves              440


    14-5      Sound Intensity           444


    14-6      The Doppler Effect               449


    14-7      Superposition and Interference              455


    14-8       Standing Waves          458


    14-9      Beats                 466


    Chapter Summary       468


            Problem-Solving Summary    470


            Conceptual Questions           470


            Conceptual Exercises           470  


            Problems    471  



    15          Fluids          479


    15-1      Density              480


    15-2      Pressure            480


    15-3      Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth        484


    15-4      Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy               489


    15-5      Applications of Archimedes’ Principle                491


    15-6      Fluid Flow and Continuity              496


    15-7      Bernoulli’s Equation              498


    15-8      Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation         501


    *15-9          Viscosity and Surface Tension              504

            Chapter Summary       507


            Problem-Solving Summary            509


            Conceptual Questions           509  


            Conceptual Exercises           510  


            Problems            511





    16             Temperature and Heat       517


    16-1      Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               518


    16-2      Temperature Scales     519


    16-3      Thermal Expansion              523


    16-4      Heat and Mechanical Work            529


    16-5      Specific Heats             531


    16-6      Conduction, Convection, and Radiation            534


    Chapter Summary       542


             Problem-Solving Summary            544


            Conceptual Questions           544  


            Conceptual Exercises           545  


            Problems                    546  



    17             Phases and Phase Changes                  551


    17-1      Ideal Gases                552


    17-2      Kinetic Theory             558


    17-3      Solids and Elastic Deformation               563


    17-4      Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation         568


    17-5      Latent Heats               574


    17-6      Phase Changes and Energy Conservation        577


    Chapter Summary               579


            Problem-Solving Summary            581


            Conceptual Questions           581


            Conceptual Exercises           582


            Problems            582



    18             The Laws of Thermodynamics             588


    18-1      The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics               589


    18-2      The First Law of Thermodynamics          589


    18-3      Thermal Processes               594


    18-4  Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume  599  


    18-5      The Second Law of Thermodynamics              603


    18-6      Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle         603


    18-7      Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps               607


    18-8      Entropy              611


    18-9      Order, Disorder, and Entropy        615


    18-10   The Third Law of Thermodynamics       617


    Chapter Summary       618


            Problem-Solving Summary            620


            Conceptual Questions           620


            Conceptual Exercises           621


            Problems            622





    19     Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields            625


    19-1  Electric Charge            626


    19-2  Insulators and Conductors     629


    19-3  Coulomb’s Law            630


    19-4  The Electric Field          637


    19-5  Electric Field Lines                       643


    19-6  Shielding and Charging by Induction       646


    19-7  Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law        649


            Chapter Summary       653


            Problem-Solving Summary            654


            Conceptual Questions           655


            Conceptual Exercises           655


             Problems            657



    20     Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy  662


    20-1  Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential    663


    20-2  Energy Conservation            666


    20-3  The Electric Potential of Point Charges    669


    20-4  Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field     673


    20-5  Capacitors and Dielectrics     677


    20-6  Electrical Energy Storage      683


            Chapter Summary       685


            Problem-Solving Summary            687


            Conceptual Questions           687


            Conceptual Exercises           688


            Problems            689



    21     Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits        695


    21-1  Electric Current           696


    21-2  Resistance and Ohm’s Law            702


    21-3  Energy and Power in Electric Circuits      705


    21-4  Resistors in Series and Parallel       708


    21-5  Kirchoff’s Rules           714


    21-6  Circuits Containing Capacitors                717


    21-7  RC Circuits          720


    *21-8  ;       Anmeters and Voltmeters            723


    Chapter Summary       724


            Problem-Solving Summary    726


            Conceptual Questions           727


            Conceptual Exercises           727


            Problems            729



    22     Magnetism                   735


    21-1  The Magnetic Field               736


    22-2  The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges  738


    22-3  The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field          742


    22-4      The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire    747


    22-5  Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque     749


    22-6  Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère’s Law                751


    22-7  Current Loops and Solenoids         755


    22-8  Magnetism in Matter            758


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    23     Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction             771


    23-1  Induced Electromotive Force         772


    23-2  Magnetic Flux     773


    23-3  Faraday’s Law of Induction           775


    23-4  Lenz’s Law          778


    23-5  Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy           781


    23-6  Generators and Motors         784


    23-7  Inductance         787

    23-8  RL Circuits          790


    23-9  Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field          791


    23-10        Transformers             793


    Chapter Summary       796


            Problem-Solving Summary    798


            Conceptual Questions   798


            Conceptual Exercises   799


            Problems    800



    24     Alternating-Current Circuits                 806


    24-1  Alternating Voltages and Currents          807


    24-2  Capacitors in AC Circuits               812


    24-3  RC Circuits          815


    24-4  Inductors in AC Circuits        820


    24-5  RLC Circuits        823


    24-6  Resonance in Electrical Circuits      827


    Chapter Summary       832


            Problem-Solving Summary    834


            Conceptual Questions   834


            Conceptual Exercises   864


            Problems    835



    PART IV LIGHT AND OPTICS   25     Electromagnetic Waves


    25-1      The Production of Electromagnetic Waves


    25-2      The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves


    25-3      The Electromagnetic Spectrum


    25-4      Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves


    25-5      Polarization


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    26             Geometrical Optics


    26-1      The Reflection of Light


    26-2      Forming Images with a Plane Mirror


    26-3  Spherical Mirrors


    26-4  Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation


    26-5      The Refraction of Light


    26-6      Ray Tracing for Lenses


    26-7      The Thin-Lens Equation


    26-8      Dispersion and the Rainbow


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    27             Optical Instruments


    27-1      The Human Eye and the Camera


    27-2      Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics


    27-3      The Magnifying Glass


    27-4      The Compound Microscope


    27-5      Telescopes


    27-6      Lens Aberrations


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    28             Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction


    28-1      Superposition and Interference


    28-2      Young’s Two-Slit Experiment


    28-3      Interference in Reflected Waves


    28-4      Diffraction


    28-5      Resolution


    28-6      Diffraction Gratings


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765





    29             Relativity


    29-1      The Postulates of Special Relativity


    29-2      The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation


    29-3      The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction


    29-4      The Relativistic Addition of Velocities


    29-5      Relativistic Momentum


    29-6      Relativistic Energy and E = mc2


    29-7      The Relativistic Universe


    29-8      General Relativity


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    30             Quantum Physics


    30-1      Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis of Quantized Energy


    30-2      Photons and the Photoelectric Effect


    30-3      The Mass and Momentum of a Photos


    30-4      Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect


    30-5      The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality


    30-6      The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle


    30-7      Quantum Tunneling


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765



    31             Atomic Physics


    31-1      Early Models of the Atom


    31-2      The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen


    31-3      Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom


    31-4      de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model


    31-5      The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom


    31-6      Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table


    31-7      Atomic Radiation


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765


    32             Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation


    32-1      The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei


    32-2      Radioactivity


    32-3      Half-Life and Radioactive Dating


    32-4      Nuclear Binding Energy


    32-5      Nuclear Fission


    32-6      Nuclear Fusion


    32-7      Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics


    32-8      Elementary Particles


    32-9      Unified Forces and Cosmology


    Chapter Summary       760


            Problem-Solving Summary    763


            Conceptual Questions   763


            Conceptual Exercises   763


            Problems    765





    Appendix A

    Basic Mathematical Tools      A-1


    Appendix B

    Typical Values             A-11


    Appendix C

    Planetary Data            A-12


    Appendix D

    Elements of Electrical Circuits                A-13


    Appendix E

    Periodic Table of the Elements       A-14


    Appendix F

    Properties of Selected Isotopes      A-15


    Answers to Your Turn Problems     ANS-1


    Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions     ANS-21


    Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Exercises      ANS-28


    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems      ANS-35


    Photo Credits      P-1


    Index                I-1

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