Materials Science of Thin Films

Materials Science of Thin Films

by Milton Ohring

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781493301720
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Publication date: 10/26/2001
Pages: 794
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Dr. Milton Ohring, author of two previously acclaimed Academic Press books,The Materials Science of Thin Films (l992) and Engineering Materials Science (1995), has taught courses on reliability and failure in electronics at Bell Laboratories (AT&T and Lucent Technologies). From this perspective and the well-written tutorial style of the book, the reader will gain a deeper physical understanding of failure mechanisms in electronic materials and devices; acquire skills in the mathematical handling of reliability data; and better appreciate future technology trends and the reliability issues they raise.

Table of Contents

Foreword to First Editionxi
Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxvii
A Historical Perspectivexix
Chapter 1A Review of Materials Science1
1.1.Introduction1
1.2.Structure2
1.3.Defects in Solids10
1.4.Bonds and Bands in Materials14
1.5.Thermodynamics of Materials24
1.6.Kinetics36
1.7.Nucleation44
1.8.An Introduction to Mechanical Behavior47
1.9.Conclusion52
Exercises52
References55
Chapter 2Vacuum Science and Technology57
2.1.Introduction57
2.2.Kinetic Theory of Gases58
2.3.Gas Transport and Pumping63
2.4.Vacuum Pumps70
2.5.Vacuum Systems81
2.6.Conclusion88
Exercises90
References92
Chapter 3Thin-Film Evaporation Processes95
3.1.Introduction95
3.2.The Physics and Chemistry of Evaporation97
3.3.Film Thickness Uniformity and Purity106
3.4.Evaporation Hardware118
3.5.Evaporation Processes and Applications128
3.6.Conclusion139
Exercises140
References143
Chapter 4Discharges, Plasmas, and Ion-Surface Interactions145
4.1.Introduction145
4.2.Plasmas, Discharges, and Arcs147
4.3.Fundamentals of Plasma Physics152
4.4.Reactions in Plasmas164
4.5.Physics of Sputtering170
4.6.Ion Bombardment Modification of Growing Films184
4.7.Conclusion196
Exercises198
References201
Chapter 5Plasma and Ion Beam Processing of Thin Films203
5.1.Introduction203
5.2.DC, AC, and Reactive Sputtering Processes205
5.3.Magnetron Sputtering222
5.4.Plasma Etching233
5.5.Hybrid and Modified PVD Processes252
5.6.Conclusion269
Exercises270
References273
Chapter 6Chemical Vapor Deposition277
6.1.Introduction277
6.2.Reaction Types281
6.3.Thermodynamics of CVD287
6.4.Gas Transport293
6.5.Film Growth Kinetics303
6.6.Thermal CVD Processes312
6.7.Plasma-Enhanced CVD Processes323
6.8.Some CVD Materials Issues334
6.9.Safety347
6.10.Conclusion349
Exercises350
References353
Chapter 7Substrate Surfaces and Thin-Film Nucleation357
7.1.Introduction357
7.2.An Atomic View of Substrate Surfaces360
7.3.Thermodynamic Aspects of Nucleation376
7.4.Kinetic Processes in Nucleation and Growth386
7.5.Experimental Studies of Nucleation and Growth400
7.6.Conclusion409
Exercises410
References414
Chapter 8Epitaxy417
8.1.Introduction417
8.2.Manifestations of Epitaxy420
8.3.Lattice Misfit and Defects in Epitaxial Films429
8.4.Epitaxy of Compound Semiconductors439
8.5.High-Temperature Methods for Depositing Epitaxial Semiconductor Films453
8.6.Low-Temperature Methods for Depositing Epitaxial Semiconductor Films466
8.7.Mechanisms and Characterization of Epitaxial Film Growth476
8.8.Conclusion488
Exercises489
References492
Chapter 9Film Structure495
9.1.Introduction495
9.2.Structural Morphology of Deposited Films and Coatings497
9.3.Computational Simulations of Film Structure510
9.4.Grain Growth, Texture, and Microstructure Control in Thin Films520
9.5.Constrained Film Structures533
9.6.Amorphous Thin Films540
9.7.Conclusion552
Exercises553
References556
Chapter 10Characterization of Thin Films and Surfaces559
10.1.Introduction559
10.2.Film Thickness562
10.3.Structural Characterization of Films and Surfaces583
10.4.Chemical Characterization of Surfaces and Films606
10.5.Conclusion633
Exercises635
References639
Chapter 11Interdiffusion, Reactions, and Transformations in Thin Films641
11.1.Introduction641
11.2.Fundamentals of Diffusion643
11.3.Interdiffusion in Thin Metal Films659
11.4.Compound Formation and Phase Transformations in Thin Films669
11.5.Metal-Semiconductor Reactions682
11.6.Mass Transport in Thin Films under Large Driving Forces695
11.7.Conclusion704
Exercises704
References708
Chapter 12Mechanical Properties of Thin Films711
12.1.Introduction711
12.2.Mechanical Testing and Strength of Thin Films713
12.3.Analysis of Internal Stress723
12.4.Techniques for Measuring Internal Stress in Films735
12.5.Internal Stresses in Thin Films and Their Causes742
12.6.Mechanical Relaxation Effects in Stressed Films754
12.7.Adhesion764
12.8.Conclusion775
Exercises776
References779
Index783

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