This book is intended to bring together the contributions of many years of investigations from a number of laboratories involved in the systematic investigation of mother-offspring interactions and the attendant conse quences for development. A similar book (Rheingold, 1963) is now more than a decade old. The value of such a book is attested to by the burgeoning interest in the subject matter since the publication of that earlier volume. The importance of the mother-infant dyad has been recognized by scientests and parents alike since time immemorial. Pioneering writers such as Sigmund Freud, with his emphasis upon the expression of biological "needs" by the developing infant, and John B. Watson, with his emphasis upon the mother's role as a conditioner-trainer of her offspring, have been followed (in time, not emphases) by such investigators as Konrad Lorenz, with his now classic studies of imprinting, Jean Piaget's sequential analyses of the development of intellect, and Harry Harlow's ingenious studies of attach ment. The present volume reflects the influences of these earlier investigators. It is comparative, psychobiological, and represents a blend ofthe "experimental" approach characteristic of those trained in experimental psychology and the "natural history" approach more often represented in the work of ethologists. Sequential analyses of developmental changes in the mother-offspring relationship characterize virtually all of the work reported herein.
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Table of Contents
1. Parturition in the Rat: Description and Assessment.- 2. The Development of Behavioral Competence in the Rat.- 3. The Maternal Behavior of the Mongolian Gerbil.- 4. Determinants of Maternal Aggression in Mice.- 5. Ultrasonic Behavior and Mother-Infant Interactions in Rodents.- 6. Pheromonal Control of Maternal Behavior.- 7. Maternal Behavior in the Laboratory Rat.- 8. Maternal Mediation of Early Experience.- 9. Malnutrition and Maternal Behavior in the Rat.- 10. Functional Consequences of Attachment: A Comparison of.- 11. Early Perceptual Experience and the Development of Social Preferences in Squirrel Monkeys.- 12. Effects of Parental Characteristics and Prenatal Factors on Pregnancy Outcomes of Pigtail Macaques.- 13. Infant Development and Maternal Behavior in Captive Chimpanzees.- 14. Maternal Separation Studies in Children and Nonhuman Primates.- 15. Maternal Deprivation: Compensatory Stimulation for the Prematurely Born Infant.- 16. Relationships of Human Mothers with their Infants During the First Year of Life: Effects of Prematurity.- 17. A Model for the Study of Early Mother-Infant Communication.- 18. Individual vs. Multiple Mothering in Mammals.