MATHEMATICAL EXCURSIONS, Third Edition, teaches students that mathematics is a system of knowing and understanding our surroundings. For example, sending information across the Internet is better understood when one understands prime numbers; the perils of radioactive waste take on new meaning when one understands exponential functions; and the efficiency of the flow of traffic through an intersection is more interesting after seeing the system of traffic lights represented in a mathematical form. Students will learn those facets of mathematics that strengthen their quantitative understanding and expand the way they know, perceive, and comprehend their world. We hope you enjoy the journey.
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Table of Contents
1. PROBLEM SOLVING. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning. Excursion: KenKen Puzzles: An Introduction. Problem Solving with Patterns. Excursion: Polygonal Numbers. Problem-Solving Strategies. Excursion: Routes on a Probability Demonstrator. Chapter 1 Summary. Chapter 1 Review. Chapter 1 Test. 2. SETS. Basic Properties of Sets. Excursion: Fuzzy Sets. Complements, Subsets, and Venn Diagrams. Excursion: Subsets and Complements of Fuzzy Sets. Set Operations. Excursion: Union and Intersection of Fuzzy Sets. Applications of Sets. Excursion: Voting Systems. Infinite Sets. Excursion: Transfinite Arithmetic. Chapter 2 Summary. Chapter 2 Review Exercises. Chapter 2 Test. 3. LOGIC. Logic Statements and Quantifiers. Excursion: Switching Networks. Truth Tables, Equivalent Statements, and Tautologies. Excursion: Switching NetworksPart II. The Conditional and the Biconditional. Excursion: Logic Gates. The Conditional and Related Statements. Excursion: Sheffer's Stroke and the NAND Gate. Symbolic Arguments. Excursion: Fallacies. Arguments and Euler Diagrams. Excursion: Using Logic to Solve Crypterithms. Chapter 3 Summary. Chapter 3 Review Exercises. Chapter 3 Test. 4. APPORTIONMENT AND VOTING. Introduction to Apportionment. Excursion: Apportioning the 1790 House of Representatives. Introduction to Voting. Excursion: Variations of the Borda Count Method. Weighted Voting Systems. Excursion: Blocking Coalitions and the Banzhaf Power Index. Chapter 4 Summary. Chapter 4 Review Exercises. Chapter 4 Test. 5. THE MATHEMATICS OF GRAPHS. Graphs and Euler Circuits. Excursion: Pen-Tracing Puzzles. Weighted Graphs. Excursion: Extending the Greedy Algorithm. Planarity and Euler's Formula. Excursion: The Five Regular Convex Polyhedra. Graph Coloring. Excursion: Modeling Traffic Lights with Graphs. Chapter 5 Summary. Chapter 5 Review Exercises. Chapter 5 Test. 6. NUMERATION SYSTEMS AND NUMBER THEORY. Early Numeration Systems. Excursion: A Rosetta Tablet for the Traditional Chinese Numeration System. Place-Value Systems. Excursion: Subtraction via the Nines Complement and the End-Around Carry. Different Base Systems. Excursion: Information Retrieval via a Binary Search. Arithmetic in Different Bases. Excursion: Subtraction in Base Two via the Ones Complement and the End-Around Carry. Prime Numbers. Excursion: The Distribution of the Primes. Topics from Number Theory. Excursion: A Sum of the Divisors Formula. Chapter 6 Summary. Chapter 6 Review Exercises. Chapter 6 Test. 7. GEOMETRY. Basic Concepts of Euclidean Geometry. Excursion: Preparing a Circle Graph. Perimeter and Area of Plane Figures. Excursion: Perimeter and Area of a Rectangle with Changing Dimensions. Properties of Triangles. Excursion: Topology: A Brief Introduction. Volume and Surface Area. Excursion: Water Displacement. Right Triangle Trigonometry. Excursion: Approximating the Value of Trigonometric Ratios. Non-Euclidean Geometry. Excursion: Finding Geodesics. Fractals. Excursion: The Heighway Dragon Fractal. Chapter 7 Summary. Chapter 7 Review Exercises. Chapter 7 Test. 8. MATHEMATICAL SYSTEMS. Modular Arithmetic. Excursion: Computing the Day of the Week. Applications of Modular Arithmetic. Excursion: Public Key Cryptography. Introduction to Group Theory. Excursion: Wallpaper Groups. Chapter 8 Summary. Chapter 8 Review Exercises. Chapter 8 Test. 9. APPLICATIONS OF EQUATIONS. First-Degree Equations and Formulas. Excursion: Body Mass Index. Rate, Ratio, and Proportion. Excursion: Earned Run Average. Percent. Excursion: Federal Income Tax. Second-Degree Equations. Excursion: The Sum and Product of the Solutions of a Quadratic Equation. Chapter 9 Summary. Chapter 9 Review Exercises. Chapter 9 Test. 10. APPLICATIONS OF FUNCTIONS. Rectangular Coordinates and Functions. Excursion: Dilations of a Geometric Figure. Properties of Linear Functions. Excursion: Negative Velocity. Finding Linear Models. Excursion: A Linear Business Model. Quadratic Functions. Excursion: Reflective Properties of a Parabola. Exponential Functions. Excursion: Chess and Exponential Functions. Logarithmic Functions. Excursion: Benford's Law. Chapter 10 Summary. Chapter 10 Review Exercises. Chapter 10 Test. 11. THE MATHEMATICS OF FINANCE. Simple Interest. Excursion: Day-of-the-Year Table. Compound Interest. Excursion: Consumer Price Index. Credit Cards and Consumer Loans. Excursion: Car Leases. Stocks, Bonds, and Mutual Funds. Excursion: Treasury Bills. Home Ownership. Excursion: Home Ownership Issues. Chapter 11 Summary. Chapter 11 Review Exercises. Chapter 11 Test. 12. COMBINATORICS AND PROBABILITY. The Counting Principle. Excursion: Decision Trees. Permutations and Combinations. Excursion: Choosing Numbers in Keno. Probability and Odds. Excursion: The Value of Pi by Simulation. Addition and Complement Rules. Excursion: Keno Revisited. Conditional Probability. Excursion: Sharing Birthdays. 12.6 Expectation. Excursion: Chuck-a-luck. Chapter 12 Summary. Chapter 12 Review Exercises. Chapter 12 Test. 13. STATISTICS. Measures of Central Tendency. Excursion: Linear Interpolation and Animation. Measures of Dispersion. Excursion: Geometric View of Variance and Standard Deviation. Measures of Relative Position. Excursion: Stem-and-Leaf Diagrams. Normal Distribution. Excursion: Cut-Off Scores. Linear Regression and Correlation. Excursion: An Application of Linear Regression. Chapter 13 Summary. Chapter 13 Review Exercises. Chapter 13 Test.