Matthew: A Commentary: The Christbook: Matthew 1-12

Matthew: A Commentary: The Christbook: Matthew 1-12

by Frederick Dale Bruner

Hardcover(Revised & Expanded Edition)


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780802811189
Publisher: Eerdmans, William B. Publishing Company
Publication date: 01/11/2004
Edition description: Revised & Expanded Edition
Pages: 604
Product dimensions: 6.54(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.57(d)

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A Commentary

Chapter One

Introduction to the Doctrine of God

Even if we cannot believe that God is dead, it is clear that something has died. And that is the capacity of most of us for conducting our daily lives as if He were about, as if His existence and His interest in our affairs were fairly probable. This incapacity may have already had drastic consequences. It may be an honest explanation of the barbarism and confusion that attack our politics, and it may help to account for the turbulence in the private climate of the age. George Steiner, "God's Acres," The New Yorker, October 30, 1978, 161

For Christian faith, only through Jesus is it manifest who or what God is. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Systematic Theology, 1994, 2:290

Because the Immanuel Jesus is the Gestalt of God for [Matthew's] readers, the title "Son of God" plays a foundational role in this Gospel, for it connects Jesus with God.... It is appropriate, then, that Jesus himself in Matthew's Gospel is the "Fokalisator" for the knowledge of God. Ulrich Luz, Das Evangelium Matthäus, EKKNT, 2002, 4:460-61

Matthew 1 has two parts: a genealogy and an annunciation. (1) In the genealogy, Matthew lays out how the Christ-promising God shaped Israel's history to keep faith with this promise. We can learn a great deal about God the Father from Matthew's genealogy and its ordinarily uninteresting names of many fathers (and a few surprising mothers). (2) In the annunciation, Matthew twice refers to the Holy Spirit and twice gives Jesus special names. We can draw from Matthew's double reference to the Spirit an introductory doctrine of God the Holy Spirit, and from Jesus' two given names we may gather fundamental material for Matthew's understanding of the Son of God. Thus Matt 1, by presenting the person and work of Jesus, introduces us to the person and work of the Christian God - the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. This introduction is enriched in every successive chapter until at the end we learn what the Gospel's final paragraph means in commanding baptism in the "name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (28:19), Matthew's fullest name for God.

After the Gospel's introductory title (1:1), here is a doctrinal outline of the chapter:

I. The Genealogy: God the Father, the Over-Us God, Bringing Deity to the World, 1:2-17

II. The Birth of the Messiah: God the Spirit, the Inside-Us God, Bringing Deity into the World, 1:18-20

III. The Naming of Jesus: God the Son, the With-Us God, Bearing Deity in the World, 1:21-25


1:1 "The book of the Genesis (Biblos geneseós) of Jesus Messiah, Son of David, Son of Abraham."

The first two words of Matthew's Gospel in Greek, Biblos geneseós, have been understood in three main ways: (1) as a short title for just the genealogy that immediately follows, (2) as a medium-sized title for the Christmas and Epiphany stories of Jesus in the next few chapters, or (3) as a long title for the entire Gospel. The long title has been recently adopted by Davies and Allison, 1:153, with strong arguments. They translate the Gospel's opening phrase like this: "Book of the New Genesis wrought by Jesus Christ ...," explaining that if Matt 1:1's "book of Genesis" is indeed the whole book's title, "then Jesus must be the subject or author of the new genesis" (1:156). In my opinion, the addition of the verb "wrought by" in our verbless title requires a bit much of the readers' imagination. Luz translates more simply: "The Book of the 'Genesis' of Jesus Christ...." He sees the Greek word genesis really meaning "Genesis," and considers the verse to be the title of the whole book. Matthew believes that he is writing a new and fresher "Book of Genesis" (Luz, 5th ed., 1:117-19). I, too, prefer the long title (with other interpreters from Zahn, 39, to Boring, 125-26), but see the short and medium titles included in the long. Matthew may have intended a multivalent "Genesis" since his Gospel proceeds to teach several "geneses": of Jesus' himself (chaps. 1-2), of his ministry (chaps. 3-4), and of his missionary church (chaps. 4-28).

Hare, 7, too, suggests "overlapping meanings" for the title of Matt 1:1 (short, medium, and long) and wonders if the verse may suggest a kind of "Genesis II: the Sequel." Matthew's very first words - "Book of Genesis" - may even project an arc that extends to the Gospel's very final words - "the consummation of the age," Matt 28:20c, so that the Gospel's trajectory is from Genesis to consummation; see Keener, 1999, 77n.17.

1:1a "The book of the Genesis." Matthew's first two Greek words say what they sound - Biblos geneseós - "book of Genesis" - to suggest that to Matthew's mind the deepest beginning in history was not the birth of the world but the birth of the world's Savior.

1:1b "Jesus." "Jesus" is the Greek translation of the more familiar Hebrew personal name "Joshua" and is emphatically the name of a man. In the early church (see, e.g., Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3:11:8, and Jerome, C.A., 9), the four beasts in Ezekiel were associated with the four Gospels, and "the beast with the face of a man" was associated with Matthew because his Gospel begins with the genealogy of a human being (for the beasts see Ezek 1:10; 10:14 and Rev 4:7). Jesus is always at least a human being. (For a fuller etymology of Jesus' name see 1:21 below.)

1:1c "Messiah" means "Anointed" or "Christ" and is actually a royal title, though here it is probably a second name since it lacks a preceding definite article. The words "Christ" and "Messiah" are synonymous and are normally a job description. The coming of the Meshiach (Messiah) is still the great hope of the Jewish people. It is Matthew's claim that this Messiah arrived in Jesus of Nazareth.

1:1d "Son of David, Son of Abraham." The two great baskets of promise in the Hebrew Scriptures are the promise to David of a son who would be a King forever (2 Sam 7; 1 Chron 17) and the promise to Abraham of a seed who would be a blessing for everyone (Gen 12; 18; 22) - that is to say, a temporal promise to David ("forever") and a spatial promise to Abraham ("for everyone"), a promise meeting Israel's longing for an eternal David, and a promise meeting the Gentiles' yearning for a universal Savior. "Son of David" says, "Israel, here is your Messiah!"; "Son of Abraham" says, "Nations, here is your hope!" According to Jerome, 72,Matthew omits all other ancestors in his Gospel title and mentions only Abraham and David "because to them alone was the promise of the Messiah made." Similarly, the Tyndale Bible (1534), mg. ad loc.; Bengel, 1:50; Henry, 3; cf. Luz, 5th ed., 1:132.

"Son of David." The classic source of this title is Nathan's Oracle. I will emphasize the important word "forever" (the Lord is speaking to David through the prophet Nathan):

When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come forth from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.

I [the Lord!] will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to me.... I will not take my steadfast love from him, as I took it from Saul ... before you. Your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me; your throne shall be established forever." (2 Sam 7:12-16; cf. the sanitized 1 Chron 17:11-14)

Matthew may have heard in "raise up" not only Jesus' birth but also his resurrection. The main appreciations of the Son of David are found in Pss 2 and 89, Isa 9 and 11, Jer 23, 30, and 33, Ezek 34 and 37, Hos 3, and perhaps Dan 9; see also the important Pharisee text, almost contemporary with Matthew, Psalms of Solomon 17. The "foreverness" of David's kingdom is stressed by repetition in the Oracle (above) and by its thematic presence, with synonyms, in the great psalm of David, Ps 89.

Handel's "Messiah" immortalized Isaiah's portrait of the coming Son of David in words that most Christians have either sung or heard: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulders, and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace" (9:6). The human "child" at the song's beginning sounds almost divine near its end ("Mighty God"). What is he? The question is raised in Matthew's Gospel, and its answer throws light on Matthew's high understanding of the "Son of David." In the fourth of The Four Questions (22:41-46) - and the only question Jesus asks, as if it is the most important - Jesus challenges the leaders' understanding of the Messiah: "'What do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' He said, 'How is it then that David by the Spirit calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, 'Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet'"? (Ps 110:1). So "'if David calls [the Messiah] Lord,'" Jesus concluded, "'how can he be [just] his [David's] son?'"

While Jesus is the human Son of David (the main purpose of the genealogy is to establish this), nevertheless Matthew's Jesus continually hints that "more than" the Son of David is here (see other "more thans" at 12:6, 41, 42).

"Son of Abraham." Matthew appreciates the universal promise to Abraham's seed for, as Boring, 126, points out, "Every reference to Abraham in Matthew relates to the promises of God to all humanity" (3:9; 8:11; 22:32). The first appearance of this universal promise occurs in the call of Abram/Abraham, probably Genesis's most important (it is certainly its most echoed) promise, at the end of which we hear wide words: "And in you [Abram], all the families of the earth shall be blessed" (Gen 12:3 NRSV).

Therefore, almost every one of the first eight words of Matthew's Greek Gospel - the Gospel's title - is full of meaning: Biblos geneseós Iésou Christou Huiou David Huiou Abraham, which we can now translate literally: "Book of Genesis of Jesus Messiah, Son of David, Son of Abraham."


I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.

The Apostles' Creed, first article

In the first half of the first chapter we see a long list of names, a genealogy, stretching from Abraham to Jesus. Matthew is fascinated by the "three-times-fourteen" shape of the genealogy, where important knots in Israel's history are tied three times, once every fourteenth generation (1:17). We will understand this three-times-fourteen formation best if we picture a kind of leaning capital N, an N, in which the first fourteen generations head upward in history and the promise from Father Abraham to King David like this (/), the second fourteen plummet downward in danger and judgment from King Solomon to the Babylonian Exile like this (\), and finally the last fourteen move upward again in hope and fulfillment from the Exile to Christ like this (/).

We may also notice three sets of surprises in the genealogy: (1) the surprising four women in the first fourteen generations, (2) the surprising four alterations in the second fourteen (two changed names and two omissions of names), and then (3) the climactically surprising two "fifths" in the third fourteen - a fifth woman (the mother of the Messiah) and a fifth alteration (the absence of a fourteenth named father). Matthew seems to have placed these three clusters of surprise (four women, four alterations, and two fifths) in his three-line genealogy in order, among other things, to keep people from falling asleep during the reading of this long list of not-all-that-interesting names. These three sets of surprises make the genealogy not only interesting but also theologically instructive. I have numbered the generations and underlined the surprises and omissions.

1. (/) "Abraham was the father of Isaac;

2. Isaac was the father of Jacob;

3. Jacob was the father of Judah and his brothers;

4. Judah was the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar [Woman #1];

5. Perez was the father of Hezron;

6. Hezron was the father of Aram;

7. Aram was the father of Amminadab;

8. Amminadab was the father of Nahshon;

9. Nahshon was the father of Salmon;

10. Salmon was the father of Boaz by Rahab [Woman #2];

11. Boaz was the father of Obed by Ruth [Woman #3];

12. Obed was the father of Jesse;

13. Jesse was the father of David the king.

14./1. David was the father of Solomon by the wife of Uriah [Woman #4];

2. (\) "Solomon was the father of Rehoboam;

3. Rehoboam was the father of Abijah;

4. Abijah was the father of Asaph [Alteration #1];

5. Asaph was the father of Jehoshaphat;

6. Jehoshaphat was the father of Joram;

7. Joram was the father of ... [Alteration #2] Uzziah;

8. Uzziah was the father of Jotham;

9. Jotham was the father of Ahaz;

10. Ahaz was the father of Hezekiah;

11. Hezekiah was the father of Manasseh;

12. Manasseh was the father of Amos [Alteration #3];

13. Amos was the father of Josiah;

14./1. Josiah was the father of ... [Alteration #4] Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the Babylonian Exile.

(/) "After the Babylonian Exile,

2. Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel;

3. Shealtiel was the father of Zerubbabel;

4. Zerubbabel was the father of Abiud;

5. Abiud was the father of Eliakim;

6. Eliakim was the father of Azor;

7. Azor was the father of Zadok;

8. Zadok was the father of Achim;

9. Achim was the father of Eliud;



Excerpted from MATTHEW by Frederick Dale Bruner Copyright © 2004 by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. Excerpted by permission.
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Table of Contents

Preface to the Revised and Expanded Editionxvi
Preface to the First Editionxxv
Major Abbreviations and Sourcesxxxix
Chapters 1-4: The Coming Messiah: The Christmas Stories1
Introductions to the Doctrines of God, Man, Initiation, and Ministry
Chapter 1Introduction to the Doctrine of God3
The Title of the Gospel, 1:14
I.The Genealogy: God the Father, the Over-Us God, Bringing Deity to the World, 1:2-177
A.Line One: From Abraham to David: The Four Women and the Doctrine of Divine Mercy, 1:2-69
B.Line Two: From Solomon to the Exile: The Four Alterations and the Doctrine of Divine Judgment, 1:7-1112
C.Line Three: From the Exile to the Christ: The Long March and the Doctrine of Divine Good Faith, 1:12-1614
Summary 1The Kingdom of God: Introduction to the Doctrine of the Sovereignty of God, 1:1716
Summary 2Biblical Freedom: Introduction to the Doctrine of Holy Scripture17
Summary 3The Genealogy as a Whole and Its Little Theology of God21
II.The Birth of the Messiah: God the Spirit, the Inside-Us God, Bringing Deity into the World, 1:18-2023
A.The Gospel of the Story: God's Ways Are Not Ours24
B.The Doctrine of the Story: The Christocentricity of the Spirit26
III.The Naming of Jesus: God the Son, the With-Us God, Bearing Deity in the World, 1:21-2329
A.The First Name: "The Lord Saves" (Ye-Shua), 1:2129
B.The Second Name: "The With-Us God" (Emmanu-El), 1:22-2332
Excursus 1.The Question of the Historicity of the Virgin Birth37
Excursus 2.The Deity of Jesus and the Questions of Incarnation and Trinity45
Summary and Conclusion46
Excursus 3.Quiet Joseph: An Early Model of Matthew's Understanding of Righteousness: An Introduction to Christian Ethics47
Excursus 4.Mother Mary: An Introduction to the Sexual Ethics of the Gospel48
Chapter 2Introduction to the Doctrine of Human Nature53
An Outline of Chapter 253
I.The Magi: Humanity under the Power of Grace, 2:1-1254
II.King Herod: Humanity under the Power of Sin, 2:1-8, 16-1965
Excursus 1.The Doctrine of Original Sin72
III.The Child: Representative Humanity, 2:13-15, 19-2373
Excursus 2.The Doctrine of Human Nature in the "Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World"79
Chapter 3The Law of Repentance and the Gospel of Baptism: The Doctrine of Initiation84
I.John the Baptist: The Repentance-Law of God and the Demands of Baptism, 3:1-1285
A.John the Baptist's Repentance Sermon and the People's Admission of Sins, 3:1-685
B.John the Baptist's Fire Sermon and His Promise of the Spirit Baptizer, 3:7-1290
The Repentance-Law of God in the Reformation Confessions99
II.Jesus' Baptism: The Gospel of God and the Supplies of Baptism, 3:13-17101
A.The Ethical Meaning of Baptism102
B.The Sacramental Meaning of Baptism103
The Church and the Para-Church105
1.Jesus' Baptism107
2.The Church's Baptism109
The Gift of the Spirit110
The Voice of the Father111
A Discussion of Infant and Believer Baptisms112
A Closing Word to Matthew 3115
Chapter 4The Doctrine of Ministry117
I.The Three Temptations: The Ministry of the Son and Servant of God, 4:1-11118
A.The First Temptation: The Temptation of Cheap Miracles. Sensationalism (The Stomach Test), 4:1-4118
1.On the Devil and Temptation119
2.On the Existence of the Devil119
B.The Second Temptation: The Temptation of Cheap Manipulation. Spectacularism (The Scripture Test), 4:5-7127
C.The Third Temptation: The Temptation of Cheap Mastery. Successism (The Salvation Test), 4:8-11131
II.The Three Services: The Ministry of the Son and Servant of Man, 4:12-25135
A.Jesus the Light of the Nations (The Service of His Heralding Person), 4:12-17135
B.Jesus the Lord of the Church (The Service of His Discipling Word), 4:18-22142
C.Jesus the Life of the Body (The Service of His Healing Work), 4:23-25145
Chapters 5-7: The Teaching Messiah: The Sermon on the Mount150
Introduction to the Doctrine of Discipleship
Chapter 5The Call of Mercy152
I.The Blessings, 5:3-16154
The Beatitudes155
A.The Inaugural Need (or Poor) Beatitudes of Grace and Faith (B 1-4), 5:3-6157
1.The First Beatitude (B 1), 5:3157
2.The Second Beatitude (B 2), 5:4163
3.The Third Beatitude (B 3), 5:5165
4.The Fourth Beatitude (B 4), 5:6167
B.The Central Help (or Full) Beatitudes of Service and Love (B 5-7), 5:7-9173
1.The Fifth Beatitude (B 5), 5:7173
2.The Sixth Beatitude (B 6), 5:8175
3.The Seventh Beatitude (B 7), 5:9177
C.The Concluding Hurt (or Persecution) Beatitudes of Joy and Hope (B 8-9), 5:10-12180
1.The Eighth Beatitude (B 8), 5:10180
2.The Ninth Beatitude (B 9), 5:11-12181
Summary. The Beatitudes as a Whole: Jesus Saves The Questions of Religious Pluralism and of the Catholic and Reformation Doctrines of Salvation183
1.Religious Pluralism183
2.The Catholic and Reformation Doctrines of Salvation185
D.The You Ares: The Ordination of Disciples to World Service (UR 1-2), 5:13-16187
1.The Salt Shaker (UR 1), 5:13187
2.The Light House (UR 2), 5:14-16190
Summary: The Blessings as a Whole: How the Sermon on the Mount Starts: The Foundation of Ethics194
II.The Commands, 5:17-48194
A.The Spiritual Command196
1.Introduction. Scripture Day: The Sunday Command of Biblical Piety (C 1), 5:17-20196
B.The Social Commands206
1.The Three Moral Commands: Against Anger, Lust, and Divorce (C 2-4), 5:21-32206
a.Mercy Day: The Monday Command of Temperamental Mercy: Against Anger (C 2), 5:21-26206
b.Trues Day: The Tuesday Command of Sexual Purity: Against Lust (C 3), 5:27-30218
c.Wedding Day: The Wednesday Command of Marital Fidelity: Against Divorce (C 4), 5:31-32226
A Summary of Jesus' Moral Commands232
2.The Three Political Commands: Against Oaths, Retaliation, and Hatred (C 5-7), 5:33-48233
a.Truth Day: The Thursday Command of Truthful Speech: Against Oaths (C 5), 5:33-37233
b.Friend Day: The Friday Command of Peacemaking: Against Revenge (C 6), 5:38-42246
Biblical and Traditional Material on the State and the Problem of Coercion259
c.Sanctiday: The Saturday Command of Love of Enemies: Against Hatred (C 7), 5:43-48266
Four Concluding Notes to the Seven Commands278
The Relation between Faith and Works (Beatitudes and Commands) in the Reformation Tradition279
Chapter 6The Call to Faith281
I.The Devotions, 6:1-18281
Introduction, 6:1282
A.Doing Charity (D 1), 6:2-4283
B.Prayer (D 2), 6:5-15286
1.How Not to Pray (Wrong Prayer), 6:5-8286
a.No Show, For He Spies287
b.Not Much, For He's Wise288
2.How to Pray (The Lord's Prayer), 6:9-15291
a.The Address (LP 0), 6:9b294
The First Table of the Lord's Prayer (LP A) (The "Your" Petitions), 6:9c-10297
b.The First Petition (LP 1), 6:9297
c.The Second Petition (LP 2), 6:10a299
d.The Third Petition (LP 3), 6:10b303
e.The Mid-Course Correction (LP MCC), 6:10c304
The Second Table of the Lord's Prayer (The "Us" Petitions) (LP B), 6:11-13305
f.The Fourth Petition (LP 4), 6:11305
g.The Fifth Petition (LP 5), 6:12308
h.The Sixth Petition (LP 6), 6:13312
i.The Postscript (LP PS), 6:14316
C.Fasting (D 3), 6:16-18318
II.The Goals, 6:19-34319
A.The Two Treasures (G 1), 6:19-21319
B.The Two Eyes (G 2), 6:22-23323
C.The Two Lords (G 3), 6:24324
D.The Two Anxieties (G 4), 6:25-34328
Chapter 7The Call to Justice336
I.The Sums, 7:1-12336
A.Don't Be So Critical (S 1), 7:1-5337
B.But Be a Little Critical (S 2), 7:6339
C.Ask in Prayer (S 3), 7:7-11342
D.And Use Your Imagination (The Golden Rule) (S 4), 7:12346
II.The Warnings, 7:13-29348
A.The Two Gates (W 1), 7:13-14349
B.The Two Prophets (W 2), 7:15-23352
1.The Two Trees, 7:15-20352
2.The Two Doers, 7:21-23355
C.The Two Houses (W 3), 7:24-27359
The Main Interpretations of the Sermon on the Mount363
Assurance and Warning, Certainty and Insecurity in Reformation Theology365
A Summary of the Sermon on the Mount: The Relation of Faith and Works368
Chapters 8-9: The Touching Messiah: The Ten Miracles370
Introduction to the Doctrine of Salvation
Chapter 8The Five Miracles of Grace: The Doctrine of Grace372
I.The Three Outsider Miracles, 8:1-17373
A.The Leper, 8:1-4373
B.The Centurion's Son, 8:5-13377
C.Peter's Mother-in-Law and the Sunset Healings, 8:14-17385
1.Peter's Mother-in-Law, 8:14-15385
2.The Sunset Healings, 8:16-17389
Excursus: On Healing Meetings390
II.The Chaos Miracles, 8:18-34392
A.The Disciples in the Storm, 8:18-27392
1.Introduction: The Would-Be Disciples, 8:18-22392
2.The Disciples in the Storm, 8:23-27397
B.The Demoniacs, 8:28-34401
Summary: The Five Miracles of Grace407
Chapter 9The Five Miracles of Freedom: The Doctrine of Freedom409
I.The Religion-Critical Controversies, 9:1-17410
A.The Paralytic: Freedom from Sin (The Forgiveness Controversy), 9:1-8410
B.The Call of Matthew: Freedom from Separatism (The Fellowship Controversy), 9:9-13417
C.The Question about Fasting: Freedom from Scrupulosity (The Fasting Controversy), 9:14-17423
II.The Society-Giving Miracles, 9:18-34427
A.The Leader's Daughter and the Woman Who Touched Jesus' Robe: Freedom from Sickness and Death (The In-Extremis Miracles), 9:18-26427
B.The Two Blind Men and the Demonic Deaf Mute: Freedom to See and to Speak (The Communalizing Miracles), 9:27-34433
1.The Healing of Two Blind Men (Pursuing Faith), 9:27-31434
2.The Healing of a Demonic Deaf-Mute (Pursued Faith), 9:32-34439
Summary: The Ten Miracles of Prayer, Matt 8-9441
The Gratis propter Christum per fidem Teaching of Salvation in Reformation Theology442
Chapter 10The Sermon on Mission: The Doctrine of Evangelism445
I.Mission Sources, 9:35-10:4446
A.The Heart of Christ for People, 9:36447
B.The Prayer of Disciples for Workers, 9:37-38449
C.The Gifts of Ministry for Healing, 10:1451
D.The Apostolic Fellowship of the Church, 10:2-4454
II.Mission Instructions, 10:5-39458
A.Travel Instructions, 10:5-15458
1.Where to Go in Mission (Not Here But Here), 10:5-6459
2.What to Do in Mission (Heralding and Healing), 10:7-8a461
3.How to Do Mission (Simply, Not Grandly), 10:8b-10463
4.With Whom to Do Mission (The Receptive), 10:11-13a467
5.How to Handle Rejection in Mission (Peace Retrieving and Dust Shaking), 10:13b-15469
B.Trouble Instructions, 10:16-23471
1.The Animal Motto of Mission (Introduction), 10:16-17a471
2.The ABC's of Missionary Persecution, 10:17b-18475
3.The Assistance of the Holy Spirit in Mission, 10:19-20476
4.The Animus of Family and World to Mission, 10:21-22477
5.The Arrival of the Son of Man before the End of the Mission, 10:23479
C.Trust Instructions, 10:24-39481
III.Hospitality Awards, 10:40-42; 11:1493
The Doctrine of Means in the Reformation Tradition498
Chapters 11-12: The Six Portraits
The Doctrine of the Person of Christ501
Chapter 11The Fish Messiah: The Doctrine of Jesus the Savior504
I.Jesus Is the Promised Messiah, 11:2-19504
II.Jesus Is the Coming Judge, 11:20-24520
III.Jesus Is the Present Savior, 11:25-30526
A.Jesus' Thanksgiving, 11:25-26527
B.Jesus' Claim, 11:27530
C.Jesus' Invitation, 11:28-30537
The Solus Christus and Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus Teachings of Reformation Confessional Theology541
A.Solus Christus (Christ Alone)542
B.Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus ("Outside the Church No Salvation")543
Chapter 12The Fire Christ: The Doctrine of Christ the Judge545
I.The Sabbath Lord: The Sabbath Controversy, 12:1-21546
A.The Grain-Picking Incident, 12:1-8546
The Reformation Interpretation of the Sabbath550
B.The Healing Incident, 12:9-14552
C.Prophetic Postscript: The Servant-Lord, 12:15-21555
II.The Spirit King: The Spirit Controversy, 12:22-37559
III.The Significant Kinsman: The Sign Controversy, 12:38-50572
Gospel Parallels in Mark and Luke, I586
Index of Names588
Index of Subjects596

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