McGraw-Hill's Guide to UK Wiring Standards for Earthing & Bonding

McGraw-Hill's Guide to UK Wiring Standards for Earthing & Bonding

by David Stockin


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A complete guide to the earthing and bonding requirements of the latest United Kingdom wiring regulations

This on-the-job reference offers complete coverage of all technical aspects of electrical earthing and bonding. The book provides you with the commentary and guidance you need to interpret and apply the earthing and bonding requirements of the 17th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2008 incorporating Amendment No. 3:2015)—the electrical code used throughout the United Kingdom.

McGraw-Hill's Guide to UK Wiring Standards for Earthing & Bonding features in-depth discussions of each of the code’s standards, section by section, along with high-quality illustrations and detailed examples. The handbook also includes answers to frequently asked questions.

Coverage Includes:

• Below Grade Earthing
• Scope and Principles
• Definitions
• General Characteristics
• Protection for Safety
• Selection and Erection of Equipment
• Inspection and Testing
• Electrode Calculations
• Economic and Legal Analysis
• Managing an Earthing Project

If you are looking for clear, expertly written coverage of electrical earthing as it relates to the latest IET codes, McGraw-Hill's Guide to UK Wiring Standards for Earthing & Bonding belongs on your desk.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781259641275
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 10/18/2016
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

David Stockin is manager of engineering at E&S Grounding Solutions. He was the lead electrical grounding/earthing engineer for Google Data Centers in America, Asia, and Europe. David has authored numerous publications on electrical grounding and earthing, including McGraw-Hill’s National Electrical Code 2014 Grounding & Earthing Handbook.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi

Author's Note to the Reader xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to BS 7671 1

Chapter 2 Part 1: Scope, Object, and Fundamental Principles 5

Chapter 3 Part 2: Definitions 7

Chapter 4 Part 3: Assessment of General Characteristics 23

Types of Conductors 23

Types of Electrical Systems 24

TN-C Systems 30

TN-S Systems 30

TN-C-S Systems 32

Chapter 5 Part 4: Protection for Safety 37

Protection Against Electric Shock, Overcurrent, Voltage Disturbances, and Electromagnetic Disturbances 37

Chapter 6 Part 5: Selection and Erection of Equipment 47

Chapter 51 Common Rules 47

Chapter 52 Selection and Erection of Wiring Systems 50

Chapter 53 Protection, Isolation, Switching, Control, and Monitoring 51

Chapter 54 Earthing Arrangements and Protective Conductors 52

TN-S Systems 53

TN-S Illustrations 54

TN-C-S Systems 58

TN-C-S Illustrations 59

TT Systems 61

TT Systems 62

TT Illustrations 63

Earth Electrodes 66

Concrete Foundations, Structural Steel Pilings, and Other Underground Metal Works 68

Soil Treatment for Earthing Electrodes 68

Earthing Electrodes for TT Systems 69

Earthing Conductors 69

Author's Note on the Selection of Earthing Conductors 70

Earthing and Bonding 70

Protective Conductors 72

Types of Protective Conductors 78

Preservation of Electrical Continuity of Protective Conductors 80

Combined Protective and Neutral Conductors 81

Earthing Arrangements (or Combined Protective and Functional Purposes 81

Earthing Arrangements for Protective Purposes 81

Earthing Requirements for the Installation of Equipment Having High Protective Conductor Currents 81

Protective Bonding Conductors 83

Main Protective Bonding Conductors 84

Supplementary Bonding Conductors 85

Chapter 7 Part 6: inspection and Testing 87

Earth Electrode Resistance 88

Earth Loop Impedance Test-General 89

Earth Loop Impedance Test (Zs) 89

External Earth Loop Impedance Test (Ze) 90

Consideration for the Increase in Resistance of Conductors with the Increase in Temperature 91

Appendix B Tables 91

Circuit Breakers 95

Minimum Protective Conductor (PE) Size 96

Temperature Correction Factors 97

Chapter 8 Electrode Calculations 99

Introduction 99

Basic Calculation Process 100

Background 102

Calculating the Estimated Resistance to Ground of Vertical Grounding/Earthing Electrodes 108

Vertical Rods in a Hollow Square (Earthing Ring) 119

Vertical Rods in a Hollow Rectangle (Earthing Ring) 121

Estimating the Resistance/Impedance of Complex Grounding Electrode Systems 126

Calculating an Estimated Ground Potential Rise of an Electrode System (Ground Grid) 130

Electrode Calculations Conclusion 132

Computer Modelling Software 132

Chapter 9 Below-Grade Earthing 135

Introduction 135

Zone (or Sphere) of Influence 136

Earthing Electrodes 137

Example Electrode Installations from the U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) 139

Sample Protective Bonding Requirement from the U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) 152

Earth Potential Rise 165

The Effects of Lightning on an Earthing System 176

Standards for Lightning Protection Systems 180

Chapter 10 Economic and Legal Analysis 183

Economic Considerations 183

Legal Considerations 185

Chapter 11 Managing a Grounding and Earthing Project 189

The Story 189

Lessons Learned 192

References 195

Index 197

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