MCSE Training Kit (Exam 70-226): (It Professional Series) Designing Highly Available Web Solutions with Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Technologies

MCSE Training Kit (Exam 70-226): (It Professional Series) Designing Highly Available Web Solutions with Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Technologies

Hardcover(Hardcover and CD-Rom)

$59.99

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780735614253
Publisher: Microsoft Press
Publication date: 11/01/2001
Series: MCSE Training Kits Series
Edition description: Hardcover and CD-Rom
Pages: 510
Product dimensions: 7.60(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.67(d)

About the Author

Founded in 1975, Microsoft (Nasdaq 'MSFT') is the worldwide leader in software for personal and business computing. The company offers a wide range of products and services designed to empower people through great software—any time, any place, and on any device.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Designing Highly Available Web Solutions

Lesson 1: Introduction to Highly Available Web Solutions
Lesson 2: Determining System Availability
Lesson 3: Ensuring System Availability
Review

About This Chapter

Protecting business uptime is an important challenge to many businesses. In some cases businesses try to have a Web site available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If they can't deliver a Web site that's highly responsive and always available, customers will find companies that can. Keeping a system up at all times is a high priority, especially in cases involving high financial stakes. To provide an infrastructure that meets these requirements, the system architect must design a platform that's available, reliable, and scalable. The platform should also provide ease of implementation, interoperability, and a short turnaround time to market. The front-end systems, back-end systems, and the networking infrastructure should work in conjunction with one another to provide high-performing, reliable, and scalable Web sites to online customers. This chapter introduces many of the concepts essential to the design of highly available Web sites. Additionally, this chapter provides information about designing these sites and determining an appropriate method of ensuring high availability. Many of the concepts introduced here are discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters. The information is presented here in order to provide a cohesive introduction to designing highly available Web solutions.

Before You Begin

To complete the lessons in this chapter, you must have
  • An understanding of basic design and administration concepts in Microsoft Windows 2000
  • An understanding of basic design and administration concepts of network infrastructures
  • A basic understanding of the concepts of high availability, fault tolerance, cluster technologies, redundant array of independent disks (RAID) implementations, load balancing, and storage area networks (SANs)

Lesson 1: Introduction to Highly Available Web Solutions

Because World Wide Web technologies are rapidly becoming the platform of choice for supporting enterprise-wide applications, the infrastructure required to develop and host applications has grown in scale and complexity. Server technology is particularly hard-pressed to keep up with the daily client demands for Web pages. One of the greatest concerns of vendors today is to make their products and services available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Providing this kind of service isn't only a business consideration, but also a matter of brand reputation. Businesses have spent millions of dollars to achieve the ideal of very high uptime. Even a small amount of downtime can cost a business a significant amount of revenue and damage its reputation. An outage can be caused by a variety of factors. The hardware, operating system, data storage, network, and management applications are some of the vulnerable areas that can lead to downtime. The system might not be resilient against disasters and faults in the system. To meet the demands of highly available Web sites, Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server has been designed to address mission-critical needs. This lesson introduces you to Windows 2000 Advanced Server and provides an overview of some of the key terminology used in designing highly available Web solutions. In addition, this lesson provides an overview of the architectural changes that have occurred as networks have moved toward a Web computing model for business.


After this lesson, you will be able to
  • Describe which features in Windows 2000 Advanced Server support high availability and scalability
  • Define the key terminology used in designing highly available Web solutions
  • Describe the Web computing model for business
Estimated lesson time: 25 minutes

Windows 2000 Advanced Server

The Microsoft Windows 2000 Server family currently includes Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. Windows 2000 Server offers core functionality appropriate to small and mediumsized organizations that have numerous workgroups and branch offices and that need essential services, including file, print, communications, infrastructure, and Web. Windows 2000 Advanced Server is designed to meet mission-critical needssuch as large data warehouses, online transaction processing (OLTP), messaging, e-commerce, and Web hosting services-for medium-sized and large organizations and for Internet service providers (ISPs). Datacenter Server includes all the functionality of Advanced Server, but provides greater reliability and availability. Datacenter Server is the best platform for large-scale line-of-business and enterprise.com back-end usage.

Windows 2000 Advanced Server evolved from Microsoft Windows NT Server 4, Enterprise Edition. It provides an integrated and comprehensive clustering infrastructure for high availability and scalability of applications and services, including main memory support up to 8 gigabytes (GB) on Intel Page Address Extension (PAE) systems. Designed for demanding enterprise applications, Advanced Server supports new systems with up to eight-way symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). SMP enables any one of the multiple processors in a computer to run any operating system or application threads simultaneously with the other processors in the system. Windows Advanced Server is well suited to database-intensive work and provides high availability server services and load balancing for excellent system and application availability.

Windows 2000 Advanced Server includes the full feature set of Windows 2000 Server and adds the high availability and scalability required for enterprise and larger departmental solutions. Windows 2000 Advanced Server includes the following functionality to support high availability:

  • Network Load Balancing (NLB)
  • The Cluster service, based on the Microsoft Cluster Server service in Windows NT Server 4, Enterprise Edition
  • Up to 8 GB main memory on Intel PAE systems
  • Up to eight-way SNIP

Note If you're uncertain about whether you have an Intel PAE computer system, contact your hardware vendor.

Key Terminology

In various types of documentation, the terminology used to describe specific characteristics of networks and Web sites often differs from one source to the next. In this section several key terms are defined to help you understand how specific terminology is used within this book.

Availability
Availability is a measure (from 0 to 100 percent) of the fault tolerance of a computer and its programs. The goal of a highly available computer is to run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (100 percent availability), which means that applications and services are operational and usable by clients most of the time. Availability measures whether a particular service is functioning properly. For example, a service with an availability of 99.999 percent is available (functioning properly) for all but 5.3 minutes of unplanned downtime a year.

You can use many different methods to increase the availability of your Web site. They range from using servers with fault-tolerant components (such as hot swappable drives, RAID controllers, redundant network interfaces, and hot swappable system boards) to load-balanced clustered solutions (such as Cisco Local Directors or Microsoft Application Center Server 2000) to failover clustered solutions (such as the Cluster service or Veritas Cluster Server). In the case of a completely redundant computer system, the software model for using the hardware is one in which the primary computer runs the application while the other computer idles, acting as a standby in case the primary system fails. The main drawbacks to redundant systems are increased hardware costs with no improvement in system throughput, and, in some cases, no protection from application failure.

You can make front-end systems at the Web tier highly available through the use of clustered servers that provide a single virtual Internet Protocol (IP) address to their clients. You can use load balancing to distribute the load across the clones. Building a failuredetection process into the load-balancing system increases the service's availability. A clone that's no longer offering a service can be automatically removed from the load-balanced set while the remaining clones continue to offer the service.

You can make back-end systems highly available through the use of failover clustering. In failover clustering, if one node fails, the other node takes ownership of its resources. Failover clustering assumes that an application can resume on another computer that's been given access to the failed system disk subsystem. The primary node will automatically failover to the secondary node when a clustered application, the operating system, or a hardware component of the primary node fails. The secondary node, which should be a replica of the primary node, must have access to the same data storage....

Table of Contents

About This Book(  Page xiii)
  Intended Audience(  Page xiv)
  Prerequisites(  Page xiv)
  Reference Materials(  Page xiv)
  About The Supplemental Course Materials CD-ROM(  Page xv)
  Features of This Book(  Page xv)
    Notes(  Page xv)
    Conventions(  Page xvi)
  Chapter and Appendix Overview(  Page xvii)
    Finding the Best Starting Point for You(  Page xviii)
    Where to Find Specific Skills in This Book(  Page xix)
  Getting Started(  Page xxi)
    Hardware and Software Requirements(  Page xxi)
    Setu  Page Instructions(  Page xxii)
  About the eBook(  Page xxiii)
  The Microsoft Certified Professional Program(  Page xxiii)
    Microsoft Certification Benefits(  Page xxiv)
    Requirements for Becoming a Microsoft Certified Professional(  Page xxvi)
    Technical Training for Computer Professionals(  Page xxviii)
  Technical Support(  Page xxix)
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Designing Highly Available Web Solutions(  Page 1)
    About This Chapter(  Page 1)
    Before You Begin(  Page 2)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to Highly Available Web Solutions(  Page 3)
    Windows 2000 Advanced Server(  Page 3)
    Key Terminology(  Page 4)
    The Web Computing Model for Business(  Page 7)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 12)
  Lesson 2: Determining System Availability(  Page 13)
    Availability Metrics(  Page 13)
    Causes of Downtime(  Page 16)
    Availability Checklist(  Page 17)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 18)
  Lesson 3: Ensuring System Availability(  Page 19)
    Designing a Highly Available Web Site(  Page 19)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 23)
  Review(  Page 24)
CHAPTER 2 Network Infrastructure(  Page 25)
    About This Chapter(  Page 25)
    Before You Begin(  Page 26)
  Lesson 1: Designing a Highly Available Network Topology(  Page 27)
    Network Topology(  Page 27)
    Making a Decision(  Page 36)
    Example: Network Redundancy(  Page 37)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 38)
  Lesson 2: Designing a Subnet Addressing Structure for a TCP/IP Network(  Page 39)
    Subnetting a Multitiered Web Environment(  Page 39)
    Making a Decision(  Page 44)
    Example: A Subnetted Web Environment(  Page 45)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 48)
  Activity 2.1: Adding Redundancy to a Network Topology(  Page 49)
  Lesson 3: Designing a DHCP Server Environment for a TCP/IP Network(  Page 50)
    Windows 2000 DHCP Service(  Page 50)
    Making a Decision(  Page 58)
    Example: A DHCP Configuration(  Page 59)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 59)
  Lesson 4: Designing a Name Resolution Structure for a TCP/IP Network(  Page 62)
    DNS Hierarchy and Naming(  Page 62)
    Making a Decision(  Page 69)
    Example: A DNS Namespace(  Page 70)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 73)
  Lab 2.1: Designing a Highly Available Network Infrastructure(  Page 74)
    Lab Objectives(  Page 74)
    About This Lab(  Page 74)
    Before You Begin(  Page 74)
    Scenario: The Contoso Web Site(  Page 75)
    Exercise 1: Providing Redundant Components and Network Paths(  Page 75)
    Exercise 2: Subnetting a TCP/IP Network(  Page 76)
    Exercise 3: Designing a Namespace(  Page 77)
  Review(  Page 78)
CHAPTER 3 Server Configurations(  Page 81)
    About This Chapter(  Page 81)
    Before You Begin(  Page 81)
  Lesson 1: Designing a Fault-Tolerant System(  Page 82)
    Highly Available Configurations(  Page 82)
    Making a Decision(  Page 88)
    Example: A Fault-Tolerant System(  Page 89)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 90)
  Lesson 2: Designing Data Storage for High Availability(  Page 91)
    Disk Fault Tolerance(  Page 91)
    Making a Decision(  Page 98)
    Example: RAID Configuration for Tailspin Toys(  Page 99)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 100)
  Lab 3.1: Planning RAID Configurations(  Page 101)
    Lab Objectives(  Page 101)
    About This Lab(  Page 101)
    Before You Begin(  Page 101)
    Scenario: Fault-Tolerant Storage for Lucerne Publishing (  Page 101)
    Exercise 1: Planning a File Server Configuration(  Page 101)
    Exercise 2: Planning a File Server and Operating System Configuration(  Page 102)
    Exercise 3: Planning a Domain Controller and Services Configuration(  Page 103)
    Exercise 4: Planning a Relational Database Server Configuration(  Page 104)
  Review(  Page 105)
CHAPTER 4 Microsoft Windows 2000 Cluster Service(  Page 107)
    About This Chapter(  Page 107)
    Before You Begin(  Page 108)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to Server Clusters(  Page 109)
    Overview of Server Clusters(  Page 109)
    Server Cluster Components(  Page 110)
    Server Cluster Objects(  Page 112)
    Cluster Service Architecture(  Page 118)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 121)
  Lesson 2: Planning Server Cluster Configurations(  Page 122)
    Planning a Server Cluster(  Page 122)
    Making a Decision(  Page 128)
    Example: A Server Cluster for Northwind Traders(  Page 130)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 131)
  Activity 4.1: Planning Resource Groups(  Page 132)
  Lesson 3: Choosing a Server Cluster Model(  Page 133)
    Server Cluster Models(  Page 133)
    Making a Decision(  Page 140)
    Example: A Highly Available Cluster for Woodgrove Bank(  Page 141)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 142)
  Lab 4.1: Planning a Server Cluster(  Page 143)
    Lab Objectives(  Page 143)
    About This Lab(  Page 143)
    Before You Begin(  Page 143)
    Scenario: Server Clusters for Wingti  Page Toys(  Page 143)
    Exercise 1: Choosing a Server Cluster Model(  Page 144)
    Exercise 2: Planning the Resource Groups(  Page 144)
    Exercise 3: Determining Failover Policies(  Page 145)
  Review(  Page 146)
CHAPTER 5 Network Load Balancing (NLB)(  Page 147)
    About This Chapter(  Page 147)
    Before You Begin(  Page 148)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to NLB(  Page 149)
    Using Multiple Servers(  Page 149)
    Windows 2000 NLB(  Page 151)
    How NLB Works(  Page 152)
    Convergence(  Page 155)
    NLB Architecture(  Page 158)
    Using NLB(  Page 160)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 162)
  Lesson 2: Planning NLB Clusters(  Page 163)
    Planning for NLB(  Page 163)
    Making a Decision(  Page 168)
    Example: An NLB Cluster for Northwind Traders(  Page 169)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 171)
  Activity 5.1: Using Round-Robin DNS for Multiple Clusters(  Page 172)
  Lesson 3: Choosing an NLB(  Page 173)
    NLB Cluster Models(  Page 173)
    Making a Decision(  Page 181)
    Example: An NLB Configuration for the Baldwin Museum of Science(  Page 182)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 183)
  Lab 5.1: Planning an NLB Cluster(  Page 184)
    About This Lab(  Page 184)
    Before You Begin(  Page 184)
    Scenario: NLB Cluster for Litware, Inc.(  Page 184)
    Exercise 1: Determining Which Applications to Run in the Cluster(  Page 185)
    Exercise 2: Choosing an NLB Model(  Page 185)
  Review(  Page 186)
CHAPTER 6 Microsoft Application Center 2000(  Page 187)
    About This Chapter(  Page 187)
    Before You Begin(  Page 188)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to Application Center(  Page 189)
    Platform Components of a Web Site(  Page 189)
    Overview of Application Center(  Page 190)
    Load Balancing(  Page 192)
    Synchronization and Deployment(  Page 194)
    Monitoring(  Page 195)
    Application Center Architecture(  Page 196)
    Clustering Scenarios(  Page 198)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 201)
  Lesson 2: Planning Application Center Clusters(  Page 202)
    Planning for Application Center 2000(  Page 202)
    Making a Decision(  Page 208)
    Example: An Application Center Cluster(  Page 210)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 211)
  Activity 6.1: Identifying Components of Application Center Clusters(  Page 212)
  Lesson 3: Designing CLB Clusters(  Page 213)
    CLB(  Page 213)
    Making a Decision(  Page 221)
    Example: A CLB Cluster for Consolidated Messenger(  Page 222)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 223)
  Lab 5.1: Designing Application Center Clusters(  Page 224)
    About This Lab(  Page 224)
    Before You Begin(  Page 224)
    Scenario: Clusters for Trey Research(  Page 224)
    Exercise 1: Designing a General/Web Cluster(  Page 225)
    Exercise 2: Designing a COM+ Routing Cluster(  Page 225)
    Exercise 3: Designing a COM+ Application Cluster(  Page 226)
  Review(  Page 227)
CHAPTER 7 Capacity Planning(  Page 229)
    About This Chapter(  Page 229)
    Before You Begin(  Page 230)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to Capacity Planning(  Page 231)
    Traffic(  Page 231)
    Performance(  Page 236)
    Availability(  Page 238)
    Scalability(  Page 238)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 238)
  Lesson 2: Calculating User Costs(  Page 240)
    Overview of Calculating Costs(  Page 240)
    Calculating Cost Per User(  Page 242)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 252)
  Activity 7.1: Calculating CPU Usage(  Page 253)
  Activity 7.2: Calculating Network Bandwidth(  Page 254)
  Lesson 3: Planning Network Capacity(  Page 255)
    The Planning Process(  Page 255)
    Making a Decision(  Page 264)
    Example: Capacity Planning for Coho Vineyard (  Page 266)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 267)
  Lab 7.1: Planning CPU and Bandwidth Capacity(  Page 268)
    About This Lab(  Page 268)
    Before You Begin(  Page 268)
    Scenario: Capacity Planning for Adventure Works(  Page 268)
    Exercise 1: Identifying the User Base(  Page 269)
    Exercise 2: Determining CPU Requirements(  Page 271)
    Exercise 3: Determining Bandwidth Capacity(  Page 272)
  Review(  Page 273)
CHAPTER 8 Directory Services(  Page 275)
    About This Chapter(  Page 275)
    Before You Begin(  Page 275)
  Lesson 1: Introduction to Active Directory (  Page 276)
    Overview of Active Directory(  Page 276)
    Active Directory Objects(  Page 277)
    Active Directory Structure(  Page 278)
    Active Directory Replication(  Page 282)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 284)
  Lesson 2: Planning the Active Directory Physical Structure(  Page 286)
    Planning Process(  Page 286)
    Making a Decision(  Page 291)
    Example: Active Directory Physical Structure for Woodgrove Bank (  Page 292)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 293)
  Lab 8.1: Planning the Physical Structure(  Page 295)
    About This Lab(  Page 295)
    Before You Begin(  Page 295)
    Scenario: Network Structure for Northwind Traders(  Page 295 )
    Exercise 1: Defining a Site Structure(  Page 296)
    Exercise 2: Placing Domain Controllers(  Page 297)
    Exercise 3: Defining an Intersite Replication Strategy(  Page 297)
    Exercise 4: Placing Global Catalog Servers and Operations Masters(  Page 298)
  Review(  Page 299)
CHAPTER 9 Application Integration(  Page 301)
    About This Chapter(  Page 301)
    Before You Begin(  Page 302)
  Lesson 1: Defining a Web Application Strategy(  Page 303)
    Application Integration(  Page 303)
    Making a Decision(  Page 310)
    Example: A Distributed Application for Trey Research(  Page 311)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 312)
  Activity 9.1: Deploying a Web Application(  Page 313)
  Lesson 2: Designing a Database Web Integration Strategy(  Page 314)
    Web Database Access(  Page 314)
    Making a Decision(  Page 322)
    Example: Database Integration for Margie’s Travel (  Page 323)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 324)
  Activity 9.2: Partitioning Data in a SQL Server Database(  Page 325)
  Lesson 3: Designing a Microsoft Exchange Web Integration Strategy(  Page 326)
    Outlook Web Access(  Page 326)
    Making a Decision(  Page 331)
    Example: Web-Integrated Messaging for Northwind Traders(  Page 332)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 332)
  Lab 9.1: Integrating a Web Application into a Distributed Environment(  Page 334)
    About This Lab(  Page 334)
    Before You Begin(  Page 334)
    Scenario: Web Application and Messaging Services(  Page  )
for Lucerne Publishing (  Page 334)
    Exercise 1: Designing an IIS Application Structure(  Page 335)
    Exercise 2: Integrating SQL Server into Your Application Structure(  Page 335)
    Exercise 3: Integrating Exchange 2000 Server into Your Web Site(  Page 336)
  Review(  Page 337)
CHAPTER 10 Network Security(  Page 339)
    About This Chapter(  Page 339)
    Before You Begin(  Page 340)
  Lesson 1: Designing an Authentication Strategy(  Page 341)
    IIS Authentication Models(  Page 341)
    Making a Decision(  Page 346)
    Example: Authentication Strategy for Trey Research(  Page 347)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 348)
  Lesson 2: Designing an Authorization Strategy(  Page 349)
    User Authorization(  Page 349)
    Making a Decision(  Page 355)
    Example: Authorization Strategy for Wide World Importers(  Page 356)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 357)
  Activity 10.1: Troubleshooting Access Permissions(  Page 358)
  Lesson 3: Designing an Encryption Strategy(  Page 359)
    Data Encryption(  Page 359)
    Making a Decision(  Page 364)
    Example: Encryption Strategy for City Power & Light(  Page 365)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 366)
  Lesson 4: Designing a Firewall Strategy(  Page 367)
    Firewall Security(  Page 367)
    Making a Decision(  Page 372)
    Example: A Firewall Strategy for Woodgrove Bank(  Page 373)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 373)
  Lab 10.1: Planning Your Network Security(  Page 375)
    About This Lab(  Page 375)
    Before You Begin(  Page 375)
    Scenario: A Security Strategy for Northwind Traders (  Page 375)
    Exercise 1: Planning an Authentication and Encryption Strategy(  Page 376)
    Exercise 2: Planning an Authorization Strategy(  Page 377)
    Exercise 3: Planning a Firewall Strategy(  Page 378)
  Review(  Page 379)
CHAPTER 11 Systems Monitoring and Disaster Recovery(  Page 381)
    About This Chapter(  Page 381)
    Before You Begin(  Page 382)
  Lesson 1: Designing a System Monitoring Strategy(  Page 383)
    Performance Monitoring(  Page 383)
    Making a Decision(  Page 393)
    Example: Monitoring Memory for Lucerne Publishing(  Page 394)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 395)
  Activity 11.1: Creating a Processor Alert(  Page 396)
  Lesson 2: Designing a Security Auditing Strategy(  Page 397)
    System Auditing(  Page 397)
    Making a Decision(  Page 402)
    Example: Directory Auditing for Fourth Coffee(  Page 402)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 403)
  Activity 11.2: Auditing a Web Site(  Page 404)
  Lesson 3: Designing a Disaster Recovery Strategy(  Page 405)
    Disaster Recovery(  Page 405)
    Making a Decision(  Page 408)
    Example: Preparing the Recovery Systems for Coho Vineyard(  Page 408)
    Lesson Summary(  Page 411)
  Lab 11.1: Designing a System Monitoring and Security Auditing Strategy(  Page 412)
    About This Lab(  Page 412)
    Before You Begin(  Page 412)
    Scenario: Northwind Traders Web Site(  Page 412)
    Exercise 1: Designing a System Monitoring Strategy(  Page 413)
    Exercise 2: Designing a Security Auditing Strategy(  Page 414)
  Review(  Page 416)
APPENDIX: Questions and Answers(  Page 419)
GLOSSARY(  Page 465)
INDEX(  Page 493)

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