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The widespread use of surveys in fields as diverse as sociology, psychology, statistics, communication science, business, and economics makes the potential effects of measurement error as far-reaching as survey results themselves. Measurement Errors in Surveys documents the current state of the field, reports new research findings, and promotes interdisciplinary exchanges in modeling, assessing, and reducing measurement errors in surveys. The book begins with an in-depth look at current issues in questionnaire design. Choice and presentation order of both questions and response alternatives are examined in detail. This section also compares the effects of questionnaire mode on cognitively designed questions. The results of research on the effects of context and question wording are probed as well. Special consideration is given to measurement error in business surveys. In studying respondents and responses, contributors consider recall error; differences in self vs. proxy responses; alternative approaches to obtaining personal history data; and item count techniques as a method of indirect questioning. Another section on interviewers and alternate means of data collection discusses the reduction of interviewer-related error through training; design and analysis of reinterview; and more. A case study examines the review of errors of direct observation in crop yield surveys. Contributors also outline factors affecting respondent-interviewer interactionsuch as the role of conversation, interview style, interviewer behavior, and response behavior. The second part of Measurement Errors in Surveys develops a fundamental approach to measurement errors. Both bottom-up and top-down versions of total survey error are presented. Modeling measurement errors and their effects on estimation and data analysis are considered and a mixed model for analyzing measurement errors for dichotomous variables demonstrated. The book ends with several chapters on data analysis. Discussions center on measurement errors in cross-national surveys and regression estimation in the presence of response error. Chi-squared tests for complex survey data are offered. A final study examines the effects of measurement error on event history analysis.
About the Author
PAUL P. BIEMER, PhD, is Chief Scientist at the Research TriangleInstitute in North Carolina. ROBERT M. GROVES, PhD, is Program Director (Senior ResearchScientist) in the Survey Research Center of the University ofMichigan, where he also serves as Director in the Institute forSocial Research and Professor of Sociology. LARS E. LYBERG, PhD, is Chief Scientist at Statistics Sweden inStockholm. NANCY A. MATHIOWETZ, PhD, is Special Assistant Director forStatistical Design, Methodology, and Standards at the U.S. Bureauof the Census. SEYMOUR SUDMAN, PhD, is the Walter A. Stellner Professor ofMarketing and Deputy Director of the Survey Research Laboratory atthe University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Table of ContentsPartial table of contents:
The Current Status of Questionnaire Design (N. Bradburn & S. Sudman).
Context Effects in the General Social Survey (T. Smith).
RESPONDENTS AND RESPONSES.
Recall Error: Sources and Bias Reduction Techniques (D. Eisenhower, et al.).
Toward a Response Model in Establishment Surveys (W. Edwards & D. Cantor).
INTERVIEWERS AND OTHER MEANS OF DATA COLLECTION.
The Design and Analysis of Reinterview: An Overview (G. Forsman & I. Schreiner).
Expenditure Diary Surveys and Their Associated Errors (A. Silberstein & S. Scott).
MEASUREMENT ERRORS IN THE INTERVIEW PROCESS.
Cognitive Laboratory Methods: A Taxonomy (B. Forsyth & J. Lessler).
The Effect of Interviewer and Respondent Characteristics on the Quality of Survey Data: A Multilevel Model (J. Hox, et al.).
MODELING MEASUREMENT ERRORS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ESTIMATION AND DATA ANALYSIS.
Approaches to the Modeling of Measurement Errors (P. Biemer & S. Stokes).
Evaluation of Measurement Instruments Using a Structural Modeling Approach (W. Saris & F. Andrews).
Chi-Squared Tests with Complex Survey Data Subject to Misclassification Error (J. Rao & D. Thomas).