ISBN-10:
1118717961
ISBN-13:
9781118717967
Pub. Date:
01/17/2017
Publisher:
Wiley
Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices / Edition 1

Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118717967
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/17/2017
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Wendong Zhang, President & Professor, North University of China, Shanxi Province, China. Dr Zhang has over 30 years experience working in the areas of dynamic testing techniques and Micro-nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). He is Deputy Director of the Ordnance Institute of China, Executive Member of Mirco-Nanometer Technology Institute of China and the Chairman of the Youth Science and Technology Association of Shanxi Province. He is the leading author of three books including an English book. He is also the winner of a couple of national and provincial level prizes.

Xiujian Chou, Associate Professor in North University of China. Engaged in research electronics, information functional materials and micro devices.

Tielin Shi, Huazhong University of Science'and Technology, China.

Zongmin Ma, North University of China, China.

Haifei Bao, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sceinces, China.

Jing Chen, Peking University, China.

Liguo Chen, Soochow University, China.

Dachao Li, Associate Professor, Tianjin University, China; is engaged in MEMS devices and micro-instruments, micro-nanometer detection technology.

Chenyang Xue, Key Laboratory of Instrument Science and Dynamic Measurement, Ministry of Education, China.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors ix

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Micro/Nanotechnology 1

1.1.1 Development of MEMS 1

1.1.2 Development of NEMS 3

1.2 Development of Micro/Nanoscale Measurements 5

1.2.1 Significance 5

1.2.2 Types of Micro/Nanoscale Measurements 6

1.2.3 Conclusion and Outlook 7

References 9

2 Geometry Measurements at the Micro/Nanoscale 11

2.1 Microvision Measurement 11

2.1.1 Micro/Nanoscale Plane Geometry Parameter Tests 11

2.1.2 Integrality Tests and Analysis of Micro/Nanometer Structures 12

2.1.3 Micro/Nanoscale Plane Dynamic Characteristic Tests 13

2.2 3D Morphology Measurements in Contact Mode 15

2.2.1 Scanning Probe Microscopy 15

2.2.2 Near-Field Scan Optics Microscopy (NSOM) 21

2.2.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy 26

2.2.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy 31

2.3 3D Morphology Optics Measurements with Non-Contact Modes 36

2.3.1 Laser Scanning Microscopy 37

2.3.2 White Light Interferometry Morphology Measurements 40

2.4 Micro/Nanoscale Tricoordinate Measurements 63

2.4.1 Basics 64

2.4.2 Experimental Techniques 67

2.5 Measurement of Film Thickness 71

References 77

3 Dynamic Measurements at the Micro/Nanoscale 79

3.1 Stroboscopic Dynamic Vision Imaging 79

3.1.1 Principles of Plane Dynamic Measurements 80

3.1.2 Equipment 81

3.1.3 Block Matching and Phase Correlation Methods 84

3.1.4 Optical Flow Field Measurement Method 86

3.2 Stroboscopic Microscopy Interference Measurements 90

3.2.1 Principles 90

3.2.2 Equipment 92

3.2.3 System 93

3.3 Laser Doppler Microscope Vibration Measurements 94

3.3.1 Differential Doppler Vibration Measurements 98

3.3.2 Laser Torsional Vibration Measurements 99

3.3.3 Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements of Single Torsional Vibrations and Single Bend Vibrations 100

3.3.4 Laser Doppler Flutter Measurements 103

3.4 Conclusion 104

3.4.1 Mechanical Processes in AFM 104

3.4.2 Measurement Theory and Methods of Micro/Nanometer Mechanics in AFM 106

3.4.3 Micro/Nano Measurement System and Reference Cantilever Measurement Method in AFM 112

3.4.4 Measurement of Spring Constant of Cantilever and System Verification 115

3.4.5 Application of AFM to Nanometrology 117

References 119

4 Mechanical Characteristics Measurements 121

4.1 Residual Stress Measurements of Microstructures 122

4.1.1 Residual Stress 122

4.1.2 Measurements 122

4.2 Axial Tensile Measurement 131

4.2.1 Traditional Tensile Method 131

4.2.2 Conversion Tensile Method 136

4.2.3 Integrated Tensile Method 137

4.2.4 Displacement Measurement of Uniaxial Tension 138

4.3 Nano-Indentation Measurements Using Contact Dode 140

4.3.1 Basic Principles of Nano-Indentation Technology 140

4.3.2 Nano-Indentation Measurements 148

4.3.3 Features of Nano-Indentation Technology 150

4.4 Bend Method 151

4.4.1 Principles 151

4.4.2 Micro/Nanobeams 154

4.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Bend Method 157

4.5 Resonance Method 157

4.5.1 Resonance Frequency 158

4.5.2 Intrinsic Resonance Frequency 159

4.6 Stress Measurements Based on Raman Spectroscopy 160

4.6.1 Raman Scattering 160

4.6.2 Theory 161

4.6.3 Experimental Techniques 162

4.6.4 System 164

4.6.5 Experiments 172

4.6.6 Conclusion and Prospects 173

4.7 Bonding Strength Measurements 174

4.7.1 Principles 174

4.7.2 Crack Spread Method 183

References 189

5 SPM for MEMS/NEMS Measurements 191

5.1 Introduction 191

5.2 Atomic Force Measurement 192

5.2.1 Atomic Force Measurement Methods 192

5.3 Instruments 199

5.3.1 Schematic of the AFM Unit 199

5.3.2 Fiber and Sample Approach Stages 200

5.3.3 Tube Scanner 202

5.3.4 Vibration Isolation System 204

5.4 Interferometer Detection Method 205

5.4.1 Optical Interference Theory 205

5.4.2 Interferometer Detection 207

5.5 Cantilever and Tip 209

5.6 SPM System 211

5.7 Applications of SFM in Micro/Nano Measurements 212

5.7.1 Three-Dimensional (3D) Imaging 212

5.7.2 Micro/Nanoelectronics 215

5.7.3 Metrology 217

5.7.4 Manipulation and Spectroscopy 218

5.8 Conclusion 222

References 222

6 MEMS Online Measurements 227

6.1 Bulk Silicon Micromachining 228

6.1.1 Principles 228

6.1.2 Location Platform 229

6.2 Surface Micromachining 235

6.2.1 Surface Sacrificial Layer Microfabrication Process 236

6.2.2 Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Polysilicon Thin Films 239

6.3 Polymer Materials Processing 245

6.3.1 Principles 245

6.3.2 Photosensitive Polyimide (PSPI) Microvalve 247

6.4 Conclusion 252

References 253

7 Typical Micro/Nanoscale Device Measurements 255

7.1 MEMS Pressure Transducer Measurements 255

7.1.1 Introduction 255

7.1.2 Principles of MEMS Pressure Transducers 255

7.1.3 Electrical Property Measurements 261

7.1.4 Static Testing of MEMS Pressure Sensors 267

7.1.5 Dynamic Measurements 271

7.1.6 Impact Factors of Pressure Sensor Testing 272

7.1.7 Reliability Measurements 273

7.2 MEMS Accelerator Measurements 276

7.2.1 Introduction 276

7.2.2 Low- and Medium-Range Accelerator Measurements 277

7.2.3 High-g MEMS Accelerator Measurements 284

7.3 RF MEMS Testing Technology 296

7.4 Micro/Nanoscale Devices for Infrared Measurement 304

7.4.1 Infrared Imaging System 305

7.4.2 Infrared Imaging Measurement 307

7.5 Typical NEMS Device Measurement 311

7.5.1 NEMS Accelerometer Measurements 312

7.5.2 Working Principles of a NEMS Acoustic Sensor 318

References 325

Index 327

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