Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean by World Bank Publications Staff, Jamie Chanduvi, Ricardo P. De Barros, Francisco Ferreira
Equality of opportunity is about leveling the playing field so that circumstances such as gender, ethnicity, place of birth, or family background do not influence a person’s life chances. Success in life should depend on people’s choices, effort and talents, not to their circumstances at birth. 'Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean' introduces new methods for measuring inequality of opportunities and makes an assessment of its evolution in Latin America over a decade.
An innovative Human Opportunity Index and other parametric and non-parametric techniques are presented for quantifying inequality based on circumstances exogenous to individual efforts. These methods are applied to gauge inequality of opportunities in access to basic services for children, learning achievement for youth, and income and consumption for adults.
Acknowledgments Executive Summary Introduction Inequality in Latin America Which Kind of Inequality Matters? Equality of Opportunities Why is This Relevant for Policy? Empirical Framework PART I: INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITIES: WHAT IT IS, HOW TO MEARSURE IT AND WHY IT MATTERS What is Inequality of Opportunity? How Can Inequality of Opportunity Be Measured? Why Should We Be Concerned With Inequality of Opportunity? What Does This Analysis Mean for Policy? PART II: INEQUALITY OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY IN SEVEN LATIN AMERICA The data Inequality of Opportunity for Earnings Inequality of Opportunity for Household Welfare The Opportunity Profile: Identifying the Least Advantaged Groups Summary PART III: INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT IN FIVE LATIN AMERICA COUNTRIES The Data Inequality of Opportunity in Educational Achievements Is Inequality of Opportunity Larger in Latin American Countries Than in OECD Countries? An Opportunity Profile for Education Summary PART IV: MEARSURING INEQUALITY OF BASIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN Measuring Inequality of Basic Opportunities for Children Basic Opportunities in the Case of Children The Data, Selected Opportunities, and Circumstances National Estimates of Inequality of Opportunities among Children Children's Inequality of Opportunities Profiles Decomposing Changes in Inequality of Opportunity over Time Summary PART V: AN INDEX OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN From Inequality of Opportunity to an Opportunity Index for Children Empirical Results from 19 LAC Countries Children Educational Opportunities Children's Opportunities in Access to Water and Sanitation Children's Opportunities in Access to Electricity A Summary Index of Opportunities to Rank Countries The Opportunity Index and Economic Performance Summary and Conclusions