An argument that choice-based, process-oriented educational assessments are more effective than static assessments of fact retrieval.
If a fundamental goal of education is to prepare students to act independently in the worldin other words, to make good choicesan ideal educational assessment would measure how well we are preparing students to do so. Current assessments, however, focus almost exclusively on how much knowledge students have accrued and can retrieve. In Measuring What Matters Most , Daniel Schwartz and Dylan Arena argue that choice should be the interpretive framework within which learning assessments are organized. Digital technologies, they suggest, make this possible; interactive assessments can evaluate students in a context of choosing whether, what, how, and when to learn.
Schwartz and Arena view choice not as an instructional ingredient to improve learning but as the outcome of learning. Because assessments shape public perception about what is useful and valued in education, choice-based assessments would provide a powerful lever in this reorientation in how people think about learning.
Schwartz and Arena consider both theoretical and practical matters. They provide an anchoring example of a computerized, choice-based assessment, argue that knowledge-based assessments are a mismatch for our educational aims, offer concrete examples of choice-based assessments that reveal what knowledge-based assessments cannot, and analyze the practice of designing assessments. Because high variability leads to innovation, they suggest democratizing assessment design to generate as many instances as possible. Finally, they consider the most difficult aspect of assessment: fairness. Choice-based assessments, they argue, shed helpful light on fairness considerations.
|Series:||The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning|
|Product dimensions:||5.38(w) x 8.00(h) x 0.56(d)|
|Age Range:||18 Years|
About the Author
Daniel L. Schwartz is Professor of Education at Stanford University.
Dylan Arena is Cofounder and Chief Learning Officer at Kidapt, Inc. , in Palo Alto, California.
Table of Contents
Series Foreword vii
I What Matters
1 Beliefs about Useful Learning 3
2 Enter Technology 11
II Theoretical Matters
3 Choice Is the Central Concern 27
4 The Isolation of Knowledge 35
5 Preparation for Future Learning 49
III Practical Matters
6 Choice-Based Assessments of Learning 67
7 Standards for Twenty-First-Century Learning Choices 81
IV Matters of Practice
8 The Tangle of Reliability and Reification 101
9 New Approaches to Assessment Design 111
10 A Research and Development Proposal 125
V The End Matters
11 Fairness and Choice 149
12 Final Summary 163