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Bedford/St. Martin's
Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 8

Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 8

by Richard Campbell
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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13: 2900312644658
    Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
    Publication date: 02/23/2011
    Edition description: Eighth Edition
    Pages: 616
    Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

    About the Author

    RICHARD CAMPBELL, director of the journalism program at Miami University, is the author of 60 Minutes and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (1991) and coauthor of Cracked Coverage: Television News, the Anti-Cocaine Crusade and the Reagan Legacy (1994). Campbell has written for numerous publications including Columbia Journalism Review, Journal of Communication, and Media Studies Journal and he is on the editorial board of Critical Studies in Mass Communication and Television Quarterly. As a writer and media critic, he is a frequent speaker on public radio and television.
    CHRISTOPHER R. MARTIN is professor of journalism at University of Northern Iowa and author of Framed! Labor and the Corporate Media (2003). He has written articles and reviews on journalism, televised sports, the Internet, and labor for several publications including Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Labor Studies Journal, and Culture, Sport, and Society.
    BETTINA FABOS, an award-winning video maker and former print reporter, is an associate professor of Visual Communication and interactive media studies at University of Northern Iowa. She is the author of Wrong Turn on the Information Superhighway: Education and the Commercialized Internet (2003). Her areas of expertise include critical media literacy, Internet commercialization, the role of the internet in education, and media representations of popular culture.

    Table of Contents

    1. Mass Communication: A Critical Approach
    Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication
    Oral and Written Eras in Communication
    The Print Revolution
    The Electronic and Digital Eras
         The Electronic Age
         The Digital Age
    Media Convergence in the Digital Era
         The Dual Roles of Media Convergence
         Media Businesses in a Converged World
    Mass Media and the Process Of Communication
    The Evolution of a New Mass Medium
    The Linear Model of Mass Communication
    A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication
    Stories: The Foundation of Media
    The Power of Media in Everyday Life
    Surveying the Cultural Landscape
    Culture as a Skyscraper
         An Inability to Appreciate Fine Art
         Exploiting High Culture
         A Throw-Away Ethic
         A Diminished Audience for High Culture
         Corrupting Political Discourse and Blocking Social Change
    Culture as a Matrix
         The Comfort of Familiar Stories
         Innovation and the Attraction of “What's New”
         A Wide Range of Messages
         Challenging the Nostalgia for a Better Past
    Cultural Values of the Modern Period
         Working Efficiently
         Celebrating the Individual
         Believing in a Rational Order
         Rejecting Tradition/Embracing Progress
    Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture
        Celebrating Populism
         Recycling Culture
         Questioning Science and Revering Nostalgia
         Acknowledging Paradox

    Critiquing Media and Culture
    Media Literacy and the Critical Process
    Benefits of a Critical Perspective
     2. The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence
    The Evolution Of The Internet
    The Birth of the Internet
    The Net Widens
    Web 1.0: The World Begins to Browse
    The Commercial Structure of the Web
         Internet Service Providers
         Web Browsing
         Directories and Search Engines

    Web 2.0
         Instant Messaging
         Wiki Web Sites
         Social Media Sites
    The Internet Today: From Media Convergence to Web 3.0
    Media Convergence
         Media Converges on our PCs
         Smartphones and Touchscreen Technology
    Web 3.0
    The Next Era: Faster and Wider Access
    Video Games and Interactive Environments
    Online Gaming
         MMORPGs and Virtual Worlds
         Consoles, Handheld Devices and Convergence
    The Economics and Effects of Gaming
    The Future of Gaming Technology
    The Economics and Issues of the Internet
    Ownership: Dividing up the Web
    Targeted Advertising and Data Mining
    Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private
         Government Surveillance
         Online Fraud

    Appropriateness: What Should Be Online?
    Access: The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide
    Alternative Voices
         Open-Source Software
         Digital Archiving

    The Internet and Democracy

    3. Sound Recording and Popular Music
    The Development of Sound Recording
    From Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium
    Sound Recording and Popular Music
    From Phonographs to CDs: Analog Goes Digital
    Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age
         MP3s and File Sharing
         The Future: Music in the Stream, Music in the Cloud
    The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio
    U.S. Popular Music and the Formation of Rock
    The Rise of Pop Music
    Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay
         Blues and R&B: The Foundation of Rock and Roll
         Youth Culture Cements Rock and Roll's Place
         Racial Integration Expands Rock and Roll
    Rock Muddies the Waters
         High and Low Culture
         Masculinity and Femininity
         The Country and the City
         The North and the South
         The Sacred and the Secular
    Battles in Rock and Roll
         White Cover Music Undermines Black Artists
         Payola Scandals Tarnish Rock and Roll
         Fears of Corruption Lead to Censorship
    A Changing Industry: Reformations in Popular Music
    The British Are Coming!
    Motor City Music: Detroit Gives America Soul
    Folk and Psychedelic Music Reflect the Times
         Folk Inspires Protest
         Rock Turns Psychedelic
    Punk, Grunge, and Alternative Respond to Mainstream Rock
         Punk Revives Rock's Rebelliousness
         Grunge and Alternative Reinterpret Rock
    Hip-Hop Redraws Musical Lines
    The Reemergence of Pop
    The Business of Sound Recording
    Music Labels Influence the Industry
         Fewer Major Labels Control More Music
         The Indies Spot the Trends
    Making, Selling, and Profiting from Music
         Making the Music
         Selling the Music
         Dividing the Profits
    Alternative Voices
         Independent Record Labels
         The Internet and Promoting Music
    Sound Recording, Free Expression, and Democracy

    4. Popular Radio and the Origins of Broadcasting
    Early Technology and The Development Of Radio
    Maxwell and Hertz Discover Radio Waves
    Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy
    Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden
    Regulating a New Medium
         Radio Waves as a Natural Resource
         The Impact of World War I
         The Formation of RCA
    The Evolution of Radio
    The RCA Partnership Unravels
    Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue” and “Red” Networks
    Government Scrutiny Ends RCA-NBC Monopoly
    CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC
    Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927
    The Golden Age of Radio
         Early Radio Programming
         Radio Programming as a Cultural Mirror
         The Authority of Radio
    Radio Reinvents Itself
    Transistors Make Radio Portable
    The FM Revolution and Edwin Armstrong
    The Rise of Format and Top 40 Radio
    Resisting the Top 40
    The Sounds of Commercial Radio
    Format Specialization
         News, Information and Talk Radio
         Music Formats
    Nonprofit Radio and NPR
         The Early Years of Nonprofit Radio
         Creation of the First Noncommercial Networks
    New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations
         Satellite Radio
         HD Radio
    Radio and Convergence
         Internet Radio
         Podcasting and Portable Listening
    The Economics of Broadcast Radio
    Local and National Advertising
    Manipulating Playlists with Payola
    Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation
    Alternative Voices
    Radio and the Democracy of the Airwaves
    5. Television & Cable: The Power of Visual Culture
    The Origins and Development of Television
    Early Innovations in TV Technology
         Electronic Technology: Zworykin and Farnsworth
         Setting Technical Standards
         Assigning Frequencies and Freezing TV Licenses
         The Introduction of Color Television
    Controlling Content-TV Grows Up
         Program Format Changes Inhibit Sponsorship
         The Rise and Fall of Quiz-Shows
         The Quiz-Show Scandal Hurts the Promise of TV
    The Development of Cable
    CATV-Community Antenna Television
    The Wires and Satellites behind Cable Television
    able Threatens Broadcasting
    Cable Services
         Basic Cable Services
         Premium Cable Services
    DBS: Cable without Wires
    Major Programming Trends
    TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture
         Sketch Comedy
         Situation Comedy
         Domestic Comedy
    TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture
         Anthology Drama
         Episodic Series
    TV Information: Our Daily News Culture
         NBC News
         CBS News
         ABC News
         Cable News Changes the Game

    Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends 
    Public Television Struggles to Find its Place
    Regulatory Challenges to Television And Cable
    Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control
    Balancing Cable's Growth against Broadcasters' Interests
         Must-Carry Rules
         Access-Channel Mandates
         Cable's Role: Electronic Publisher or Common Carrier?
    Franchising Frenzy
    The Telecommunications Act of 1996
    Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits
    Home Video
    Convergence: TV and the Internet-the Third Screen
    Fourth Screens? Smart Phones and Mobile Video
    The Economics and Ownership of Television and Cable
    Syndication Keeps Shows Going and Going . . .
         Types of Syndication
         Barter vs. Cash Deals
    Measuring Television Viewing
         Calculating Ratings and Shares
          Impact of Ratings and Shares on Programming
          Assessing Today's Markets

    The Major Programming Corporations
         The Major Broadcast Networks
         Major Cable and DBS Companies
         The Effects of Consolidation

    Alternative Voices
    Television, Cable, and Democracy
    6. Movies and the Impact of Images
    Early Technology and the Evolution Of Movies
    The Development of Film
         Muybridge and Goodwin Make Pictures Move
         Edison and the Lumières Create Motion Pictures
    The Introduction of Narrative
    The Arrival of Nickelodeons
    The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System
    The Studio System's Golden Age
    Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era
    The Introduction of Sound
    The Development of the Hollywood Style
         Hollywood Narratives
         Hollywood Genres
         Hollywood “Authors”
    Outside the Hollywood System
         Global Cinema
         The Documentary Tradition
         The Rise of Independent Films

    The Transformation of the Studio System
    The Hollywood Ten
    The Paramount Decision
    Moving to the Suburbs
    Television Changes Hollywood
    Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment
    The Economics of the Movie Business
    Production, Distribution, and Exhibition Today
         Making Money on Movies Today
         Theater Chains Consolidate Exhibition
    The Major Studio Players
    Convergence: Movies Adjust to the Internet Age
    Alternative Voices
    Popular Movies and Democracy
    7. Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism
    The Evolution of American Newspapers
    Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press
    The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media
         Day and the New York Sun
         Bennett and the New York Morning Herald
         Changing Economics and the Founding of the Associated Press
    The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation
         Pulitzer and the New York World
         Hearst and the New York Journal
    Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism
    “Objectivity” in Modern Journalism
         Ochs and the New York Times
         “Just the Facts, Please”
    Interpretive Journalism
         The Promise of Interpretive Journalism
         Broadcast News Embraces Interpretive Journalism
    Literary Forms of Journalism
         Journalism as an Art Form
         The Attack on Journalistic Objectivity
    Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet Age
         USA Today Colors the Print Landscape
         Online Journalism Redefines News
    The Business and Ownership Of Newspapers
    Consensus vs. Conflict: Newspapers Play Different Roles
    Newspapers Target Specific Readers
         African American Newspapers
         Spanish-Language Newspapers
         Asian American Newspapers
         Native American Newspapers
         The Underground Press
    Newspaper Operations
         News and Editorial Responsibilities
         Wire Services and Feature Syndication
    Newspaper Ownership: Chains Lose Their Grip
    Joint Operating Agreements Combat Declining Competition
    Challenges Facing Newspapers Today
    Readership Declines in the United States
    Going Local: How Small and Campus Papers Retain Readers
    Convergence: Newspapers Struggle in the Move to Digital
    Blogs Challenge Newspapers' Authority Online
    New Models for Journalism
    Alternative Voices
    Newspapers and Democracy

    8. Magazines in the Age of Specialization
    The Early History of Magazines
    The First Magazines
    Magazines in Colonial America
    U.S. Magazines in the Nineteenth Century
    National, Women's, and Illustrated Magazines
    The Development of Modern American Magazines
    Social Reform and the Muckrackers
    The Rise of General-Interest Magazines
         Saturday Evening Post
         Reader's Digest
    The Fall of General-Interest Magazines
         TV Guide is Born
         Saturday Evening Post, Life, and Look Expire
         People Puts Life Back Into Magazines
    Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age
    Magazines Move Online
    Paperless: Magazines Embrace Digital Content
    The Domination Of Specialization
    Men's and Women's Magazines
    Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines
    Magazines for the Ages
    Elite Magazines
    Minority-Targeted Magazines
    Supermarket Tabloids
    The Organization and Economics of Magazines
    Magazine Departments and Duties
         Editorial and Production
         Advertising and Sales
         Circulation and Distribution
    Major Magazine Chains
    Alternative Voices
    Magazines In A Democratic Society
    9. Books and the Power of Print
    The History of Books from Papyrus to Paperback
    The Development of Manuscript Culture
    The Innovations of Block Printing and Movable Type
    The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press
    The Birth of Publishing in the United States
    Modern Publishing and the Book Industry
    The Formation of Publishing Houses
    Types of Books
         Trade Books
         Professional Books
         Mass Market Paperbacks
         Religious Books
         Reference Books
         University Press Books
    Trends and Issues in Book Publishing
    Influences of Television and Film
    Audio Books
    Convergence: Books in the Digital Age
         Print Books Move Online
         The Future of E-books
    Preserving and Digitizing Books
    Censorship and Banned Books
    The Organization and Ownership of the Book Industry
    Ownership Patterns
    The Structure of Book Publishing
    Selling Books: Stores, Clubs, and Mail Order
         Online Bookstores
         Book Clubs and Mail Order
    Alternative Voices
    Books and the Future of Democracy
    10. Advertising and Commercial Culture
    Early Developments in American Advertising
    The First Advertising Agencies
    Advertising in the 1800s
         Trademarks and Packaging
         Patent Medicines and Department Stores
         Advertising's Impact on Newspapers
    Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values
         Appealing to Female Consumers
         Dealing with Criticism

    Early Ad Regulation
    The Shape of U.S. Advertising Today
    The Influence of Visual Design
    Types of Advertising Agencies
         Boutique Agencies
    The Structure of Ad Agencies
         Account Planning, Market Research, and VALS
         Creative Development
         Media Coordination: Planning and Placing Advertising
         Account and Client Management

    Trends in Online Advertising
         Online Advertising Challenges Traditional Media
         Advertising Online
         Advertising Invades Social Media

    Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising
    Conventional Persuasive Strategies
    The Association Principle
         Disassociation as an Advertising Strategy
    Advertising as Myth
    Product Placement
    Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising
    Critical Issues in Advertising
         Children and Advertising
         Advertising in Schools
         Health and Advertising

    Watching Over Advertising
         Excessive Commercialism
         The FTC Takes on Puffery and Deception

    Alternative Voices
    Advertising, Politics, and Democracy
    Advertising's Role in Politics
    The Future of Advertising
    11. Public Relations and Framing the Message
    Early Developments in Public Relations
    P.T. Barnum and Buffalo Bill
    Big Business and Press Agents
    The Birth of Modern Public Relations
         Ivy Ledbetter Lee
         Edward Bernays
    The Practice of Public Relations
    Approaches to Organized Public Relations
    Performing Public Relations
         Research: Formulating the Message
         Conveying the Message
         Media Relations
         Special Events and Pseudo-Events
         Community and Consumer Relations
         Government Regulations and Lobbying
    Public Relations during a Crisis
    Tensions between Public Relations and the Press
    Elements of Professional Friction
         Undermining Facts and Blocking Access
         Promoting Publicity and Business as News
    Shaping the Image of Public Relations
    Alternative Voices
    Public Relations and Democracy
    12. Media Economics and the Global Marketplace
    Analyzing the Media Economy
    The Structure of the Media Industry
    The Performance of Media Organizations
         Collecting Revenue
         Commercial Strategies and Social Expectations

    The Internet Changes the Game
    The Transition to an Information Economy
    Deregulation Trumps Regulation
         The Escalation of Deregulation
         Deregulation Continues Today

    Media Powerhouses: Consolidation, Partnerships, and Mergers
    Business Tendencies in Media Industries
         Flexible Markets and the Decline of Labor Unions
         Downsizing and the Wage Gap
    Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling
    Specialization and Global Markets
    The Rise of Specialization and Synergy
    Disney: A Postmodern Media Conglomerate
         The Early Years
         The Company Diversifies
         Global Expansion
         Corporate Shake-Ups and Disney Today
    Global Audiences Expand Media Markets
    Social Issues in Media Economics
    The Limits of Antitrust Laws
         Local Monopolies
    The Fallout from a Free Market
         Equating Free Markets with Democracy
         Consumer Choice versus Consumer Control
    Cultural Imperialism
    The Media Marketplace and Democracy
    The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy
    The Media Reform Movement
    13. The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy
    Modern Journalism In The Information Age
    What is News?
         Characteristics of News
    Values in American Journalism
         Neutrality Boosts Credibility…and Sales
         Other Cultural Values in Journalism
         Facts, Values, and Bias
    Ethics and the News Media
    Ethical Predicaments
         Deploying Deception
         Invading Privacy
         Conflict of Interest
    Resolving Ethical Problems
    Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalism
    Focusing on the Present
         Getting a Good Story
         Aristotle, Kant, Bentham, and Mill
         Developing Ethical Policy
         Getting a Story First
    Relying on Experts
    Balancing Story Conflict
    Acting as Adversaries
    Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet
    Differences between Print and TV News
         Sound Bitten
         Pretty-Face and Happy-Talk Culture

    Pundits, “Talking Heads” and Politics
    Convergence Enhances and Challenges Journalism
    The Power of Visual Language
    Alternative Models: Public Journalism and “Fake” News
    The Public Journalism Movement
         An Early Public Journalism Project
         Criticizing Public Journalism

    “Fake” News and Satiric Journalism
    Democracy and Reimagining Journalism's Role
    Social Responsibility
    Deliberative Democracy
    14. Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research
    Early Media Research Methods
    Propaganda Analysis
    Public Opinion Research
    Social Psychology Studies
    Marketing Research
    Research on Media Effects
    Early Theories of Media Effects
         The Hypodermic Needle Model
         The Minimal-Effects Model
         The Uses and Gratifications Model
    Conducting Media Effects Research
         Survey Research
         Content Analysis

    Contemporary Media Effects Theories
         Social Learning Theory
         The Cultivation Effect
         Spiral of Silence

    Evaluating Research on Media Effects
    Cultural Approaches to Media Research
    Early Developments in Cultural Studies Research
    Conducting Cultural Studies Research
         Textual Analysis
         Audience Studies
         Political Economy Studies

    Cultural Studies Theoretical Perspectives
         The Public Sphere
         Communication as Culture
    Evaluating Cultural Studies Research
    Media Research and Democracy
    15. Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression
    The Origins of Free Expression and a Free Press
    Models of Expression
    The First Amendment of the US Constitution
    Censorship as Prior Restraint
         The Pentagon Papers Case
         The Progressive Magazine Case
    Unexpected Forms of Expression
         Seditious Expression
         Copyright Infringement
         Defenses against Libel Charges
         The Right to Privacy
    First Amendment versus Sixth Amendment
         Gag Orders and Shield Laws
         Cameras in the Courtroom
    Film and the First Amendment
    Social and Political Pressures on the Movies
    Self-Regulation in the Movie Industry
         The Motion Picture Production Code
         The Miracle Case
    The MPAA Ratings System
    Expressions In The Media: Print, Broadcast, And Online
    The FCC Regulates Broadcasting
    Dirty Words, Indecent Speech, and Hefty Fines
    Political Broadcasts and Equal Opportunity
    The Demise of the Fairness Doctrine
    Communication Policy and the Internet
    The First Amendment and Democracy
    Extended Case Study: Analyzing the BP Oil Spill Coverage
         Step 1: Description
         Step 2: Analysis
         Step 3: Interpretation
         Step 4: Evaluation
         Step 5: Engagement

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