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Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective / Edition 1

Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective / Edition 1

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by Steven J. Kirsh

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ISBN-10: 1405179473

ISBN-13: 9781405179478

Pub. Date: 12/15/2009

Publisher: Wiley

Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective provides a thorough review and critique of the media effects research conducted on infants, children, and adolescents.

Throughout their development, youths vary cognitively, emotionally, physically, and socially. In taking a developmental perspective, the theories and research throughout the book effectively


Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective provides a thorough review and critique of the media effects research conducted on infants, children, and adolescents.

Throughout their development, youths vary cognitively, emotionally, physically, and socially. In taking a developmental perspective, the theories and research throughout the book effectively reflect these variations. This approach results in far greater clarity in understanding the effects of media on youth as a result of age and developmental status.

Kirsh offers a unique and wide-ranging overview of this fascinating subject, addressing the crucial issues of how much media youth consume and why; the positive and negative impacts of varying media across development; the theories behind the impact of media on youth; and what can be done to reduce the harmful consequences associated with media consumption. Each chapter ends with a section on developmental points of interest; these sections place the empirical findings, underlying theory, and suggestions for future research discussed in that chapter within the context of developmental change.

This textbook is of primary interest to those teaching courses on, and studying, media effects and children in the areas of Psychology and Communication.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xii

1 Media in the Lives of Youth 1

A Brief History of the Perceived Power of the Media 1

Investigating Media Effects Across Development 4

Media Ownership Across Development 5

Media in the Home 5

Media in the Bedroom 5

Media Consumption Across Development 8

Measuring Media Use 8

Media Use During Infancy, Toddlerhood, and Early Childhood 12

Media Consumption During Middle Childhood and Adolescence 13

Why Youth Consume Media 15

Uses and Gratifications Approach to Media Consumption 15

Self-Determination Theory 19

Additional Reasons for Media Consumption 21

Developmental Points of Interest 22

2 Media Effect Theories 25

Socialization and Theory 25

Hypodermic Needle or Magic Bullet Theory 27

Excitation Transfer 27

Cultivation Perspective 28

Priming 30

Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theory 31

Social Learning Theory 32

Social Cognitive Theory 34

Script Theory 35

Universal Media Model 36

Developmental Points of Interest 39

3 Media and Academic Effects 41

Is Media Consumption Detrimental to Academic Achievement? 42

Mechanisms Behind the Reduction Hypothesis 42

Research Linking Media Use and Academic Achievement 45

Evaluating Research on the Reduction and Stimulation Hypotheses 46

The Benefits of Educational Media 46

Televised Educational Media 47

Computer-Assisted Instruction 54

Music and Academic Achievement: Myth or Reality? 58

Developmental Points of Interest 60

4 The Medical and Social Benefits of Media Use 63

Pain Reduction Through Media-Based Distraction 63

Research on Infants 64

Research on Toddlers and Preschoolers 65

Research on Youth in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 65

Distraction Through Absorption and Flow 66

Pain and Video Games: A Prescription for Success? 67

Additional Medical Benefits of Video Game Play and Virtual Reality 67

The Behavioral Benefits of Prosocial Media 69

Cognitive Requirements Needed for Prosocial Learning 70

Research on Infants and Toddlers 71

Research on Preschoolers 71

Research on Youth in Middle Childhood and Adolescence 73

The Psychological Benefits of the Internet 74

Friendship 74

Well-Being and Social Self-Esteem 75

Identity Exploration 76

Developmental Points of Interest 77

5 Advertising, Consumer Behavior, and Youth 81

Consumer Behavior Across Development 82

Feeling Wants and Preferences 82

Nagging and Negotiations 83

Adventure and the First Purchase 85

Conformity and Fastidiousness 86

Consumer Behavior During Adolescence 87

Consumer Behavior and the Moderating Effect of Materialism 88

Advertisements That Target Youth 90

Characteristics of Advertisements Targeting Youth 91

Advertisements That Are Not Supposed to Target Youth but Most Likely Do 94

Research on Intended Cognitions 96

Research on Intended Emotions 98

Research on Intended Behavior 99

Developmental Points of Interest 101

6 Media and Stereotyping 103

The Nature of Stereotypes 103

Stereotypes in the Media That Youth Consume 105

Stereotypes in Literature 105

Stereotypes in Newspaper Comics 111

Stereotypes in Cartoons 112

Stereotypes in Educational Television and Computer Software 114

Stereotypes in Television Commercials 115

Stereotypes in Live-Action Television Programming 117

Stereotypes in Video Games 118

Stereotypes on the Internet 119

Effects of Stereotypes in the Media on Youth 120

Stereotyped Media and Gender 120

Racial Stereotypes 122

Developmental Points of Interest 123

7 Media Influences on Obesity, Body Image, and Eating Disorders 126

Media Consumption and Body Weight 127

Explaining Why Media Can Be Fattening 128

Parents, Media, and Obesity 133

Media and Obesity Stigma 133

Body Image and Media 135

Depictions of Body Image in the Media 136

Body Image Research 139

Thin-Ideal Media and Eating Disorders in Females 144

Lean Muscularity and Muscle Dysmorphia in Males 147

Developmental Points of Interest 147

8 The Role of Media in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use 149

Prevalence of Cigarette, Alcohol, and Drug (CAD) Use Across Development 149

Outcomes Associated With Adolescent CAD Use 152

Health Risks 152

Gateway Hypothesis of Drug Use 153

Addiction 154

Perceptions of CAD Use 155

Prevalence of Substance Use in the Media 156

Advertisements 156

Media-Based Story Lines in the Movies and on TV 158

Music 161

Video Games 162

Websites 163

Effects of Substance Use in the Media 165

Research During Early Childhood 165

Research During Middle Childhood 166

Research During Adolescence 168

Developmental Points of Interest 172

9 Media and the Sexualization and Sexual Socialization of Youth 175

Sexualization and Sexual Socialization 175

Sexual Media 178

Sexual Content Observed by Children and Adolescents 178

Sexualization of Youth in the Media 184

The Effects of Viewing Sexual Media on Adolescents 186

Attitudes Toward Sex 187

Sexual Expectations and Attributions 187

Sexual Behavior 188

Developmental Points of Interest 190

10 Violent Media Part 1: Comic Books, Music, and Video Games 193

A Brief Primer on Aggression 194

Violent Comic Books 195

Music Violence 197

Violent Lyrics 197

Boulevard of Broken Lyrics? 198

Violent Music and Aggressive Actions 199

Violent Music Videos 200

Violent Music and Suicide 201

Violent Video Games 202

Violent Video Games and Increasing Realism 203

Violent Video Games and Youth: Effects of Era, Age, and Research Design 204

Violent Gaming Online 209

Developmental Points of Interest 211

11 Violent Media Part 2: Traditional Screen Media 213

Violence in Traditional Screen Media 213

Factors That Influence the Perception of Violence 215

Sanitization and Consequences 215

Comedy 216

Justification and Legitimation 216

Perceived Reality 217

Graphicness 217

Glamorization 218

Research on the Factors That Influence the Perception of Violence in Media 218

The Effects of On-Screen Violence on Youth 219

Aggressive Disinhibition 219

Changes in Aggression-Related Constructs 224

Desensitization 226

Becoming Fearful 228

Developmental Points of Interest 230

12 Media Effects: Magnitude, Risk, and Media Literacy 233

Meta-Analysis 234

Findings From Meta-Analyses of Media Effects Research 235

Risk, Protective, and Beneficial Factors 239

Reducing the Negative Effects of Media Through Media Literacy 240

Research on Co-Consuming Mediation 242

Research on Restrictive Mediation 242

Research on Active Mediation 244

Countermedia 246

Developmental Points of Interest 250

References 253

Index 296

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Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Very informative and well written. A great source of information for those interested in understanding how media influences kids.