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Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Media Politics: A Citizen's Guide / Edition 3

Media Politics: A Citizen's Guide / Edition 3

by Shanto Iyengar


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Media Politics: A Citizen's Guide / Edition 3

Provides crucial context for important recent developments
Have the 2016 elections and Trump presidency ushered in a new era in political communication? Iyengar helps students see how dramatic developments like claims of “fake news,” allegations of Russian election meddling via social media, and Donald Trump’s attacks on mainstream news outlets fit into a larger understanding of the media’s role in democracy.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780393937794
Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Publication date: 07/22/2015
Edition description: Third Edition
Pages: 416
Sales rank: 179,473
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Shanto Iyengar holds the Chandler Chair in Communication at Stanford University where he is also Professor of Political Science and Director of the Political Communication Laboratory. Iyengar’s areas of expertise include the role of mass media in democratic societies, public opinion, and political psychology. Iyengar’s research has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Ford Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the Hewlett Foundation. He is the recipient of several professional awards, including the Philip E. Converse Book Award of the American Political Science Association for the best book in the field of public opinion, the Murray Edelman Distinguished Career Award, and the Goldsmith Book Prize from Harvard University. He has authored or edited several books including News That Matters, Is Anyone Responsible? and Explorations in Political Psychology.

Table of Contents

Video Archives xi

Acknowledgments xix

1 Introduction: Image Is Everything 1

Media-Based Politics in the United States 2

Outline of the Book 4

Behavior and Performance of the Press 7

Shaping the News: Candidates, Advocacy Groups, and Elected Officials 10

Media Effects 13

2 The Press and the Democratic Process: The American System in Comparative Perspective 19

Media Politics as the Successor to Party Politics 22

Patterns of Media Ownership and Regulation 28

Public versus Commercial Ownership of Broadcast Media 29

Alternative Approaches to Media Regulation 36

Broadcast Media 36

Print Media 42

Regulating the News Media's Coverage of Campaigns 45

Conclusion 47

Summary 48

Further Readings 48

3 The Media Marketplace: Where Americans Get the News 51

Audiences 54

Credibility 61

What gets reported? 65

Market Pressures 66

A Case Study of Local Television News 70

Organizational Processes and Routines 71

Autonomy and Objectivity as Dominant Values 72

Interpretive journalism 73

Combat Stories 77

Accessibility and Appropriateness 82

Routines and Procedures 83

Sources 85

Conclusion 86

Summary 89

Further Readings 90

4 Reporters, Official Sources, and the Decline of Adversarial Journalism 93

Indexing the News 94

National Security News: The Triumph of Official Journalism 99

News Coverage of the Vietnam War: A Case Study of Indexing 99

The Lessons of Vietnam: Restricted Press Access 101

The Lessons of Grenada: Media Pools 104

A Refinement of Media Pools: Embedded journalists 106

Conclusion 108

Summary 110

Further Readings 111

5 New Media, New Forms of Campaigning 113

The Diffusion of Technology 114

Effects of New Media on Consumers 118

Internet Use and Civic Engagement 119

Selective Exposure to Online News? 122

The Attentive Public Hypothesis 124

The Partisan Polarization Hypothesis 126

The Issue Public Hypothesis 129

Case Study: The Polarization of the Blogosphere 130

Social Media as a News Source: Implications for Selective Exposure 134

Impact of the Internet on Political Organizations 135

Case Study: New Media and Regime Change 137

Internet Campaigning Comes of Age 139

Conclusion 144

Summary 145

Further Readings 146

6 Campaigning through the Media 148

Strategies for Managing the Press 149

Avoiding Feeding Frenzies 150

Dealing with the Objectivity Imperative 151

Playing the Expectations Game 152

Managing Events 153

Regulating Access 155

Playing One Source against Another 156

Dueling Press Releases 157

Advertising strategy 159

Targeting the Audience 160

Planting the Seed: Early Advertising 163

Image versus Issue Spots 164

Issue Ownership 165

Wedge Appeals: Us versus Them 168

The 1994 Campaign: "They Keep Coming" 171

The 2010 Campaign: Flip-Flopping on Immigration 172

Negative Advertising 173

Negative Themes 174

Reactivity: Attacks Provoke Counterattacks 174

Direct Mail as an Alternative to Televised Advertising 178

Campaign Finance Reform: A Brief Overview 180

Buckley v. Valeo 181

Soft Money and Issue Advocacy 182

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act 183

Citizens United and McCutcheon 185

Candidate: Debates 186

Conclusion 190

Summary 190

Further Readings 192

7 Going Public: Governing through the Media 194

Case Study: A Tale of Two Disasters 198

Presidential Communication 199

The President's Media Managers 200

Getting the Message Out 203

News Coverage 203

Case Study: A Day in the Life of the Presidential Press Secretary 206

Speechmaking 208

The Press Conference 211

Alternatives to the Press Conference 214

The Public Congressperson 217

Committee Hearings 218

Policy versus Electoral Goals 220

The Rise of Issue Advertising 223

Conclusion 225

Summary 226

Further Readings 227

8 News and Public Opinion 230

Conceptualizations of Media Influence 231

The Choice of Methods 234

Identifying Causes: The Advantage of Experiments 234

Generaiizability: The Advantage of Surveys 237

Combining Experimental and Survey Approaches 240

Varieties of Media Effects 240

Learning 241

Agenda Control 243

Setting the Elite Agenda 246

Psychological Accounts of Agenda Setting 248

Priming Effects 249

Framing Effects 254

Persuasion Effects 260

Receiver-Related Contingencies 261

Source- and Message-Related Contingencies 265

Conclusion 266

Summary 267

Further Readings 268

9 Campaigns That Matter 270

Political Context Versus Campaign Effects 270

Voter Dynamics: Forecasting Presidential Elections 272

The Influence of Campaigns 273

Voting as an Expression of Partisanship 275

Holding the Base 276

Attracting Swing Voters 282

Educating Voters 285

Learning and Momentum in Primary Campaigns 291

Campaigns and Turnout 294

Conclusion 299

Summary 300

Further Readings 301

10 The Consequences of Going Public 304

Theories of Presidential Popularity 305

Inevitable Decline? 305

Real-World Cues 309

The Role of Presidential Rhetoric 311

Why Media Management Matters 312

The Rally Effect 314

Going Public and Public Policy: Power to the People? 317

Conclusion 324

Summary 324

Further Readings 325

11 Evaluating Media Politics 327

Issueless Coverage: A Case Study Of Crime 329

Strengthening Public Service Broadcasting 334

Giving Candidates Free Media Time 336

Encouraging a More Partisan Press 339

Fostering Direct Communication Between Candidates and Voters 341

Reaching the Technology Generation 342

Conclusion 346

Summary 347

Further Readings 348

Bibliography 351

Credits 367

Index 369

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