Medical Dosage Calculations / Edition 11 available in Paperback
For courses in medical dosage calculation in departments of nursing, pharmacy, pre-med, pre-dental, and other health disciplines; and for courses covering dosage calculation in other programs, such as pharmacology, pediatrics and critical care.
The complete and user-friendly guide to safe drug dosage calculation Fully revised for current practices and medication, Medical Dosage Calculations remains the field’s most complete, user-friendly and accessible drug calculation text and workbook. Using the dimensional analysis format it pioneered, students begin with simple arithmetic, progressing to the most complex drug calculations. As they develop mathematical skills for accurate dosage calculations, they also gain a thorough professional understanding of safe drug administration. Compared with competitors, our text contains deeper, more realistic problems, incorporating actual dosages and requiring real critical thinking.
|Product dimensions:||8.40(w) x 10.70(h) x 0.70(d)|
About the Author
June Looby Olsen began her nursing career in Burlington, Vermont, at Bishop De Goesbriand Memorial Hospital, where she graduated from its nursing program. She obtained her BS and MS degrees in nursing from St. John’s University, New York. She was a staff nurse, as well as a nurse supervisor, and became head nurse at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Brooklyn, New York.
Her teaching career began at Staten Island Community College, and she retired as full professor emeritus from the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York. In addition to this textbook, Professor Olsen has written Fundamentals of Nursing Review and Dosage Calculation, both published by Springhouse. She was a recipient of the Mu Epsilon Leadership in Nursing award.
Anthony Giangrasso was born and raised in Maspeth, New York. He attended Rice High School on a scholarship and in his senior year was named in an annual citywide contest by the New York Journal-American newspaper as New York City’s most outstanding high school scholar-athlete. He was also awarded a full-tuition scholarship to Iona College, from which he obtained a BA in mathematics, magna cum laude, with a ranking of sixth in his graduating class.
Anthony began his teaching career as a fifth-grade teacher in Manhattan, as a member of the Christian Brothers of Ireland, and taught high school mathematics and physics in Harlem and Newark, New Jersey. He holds an MS and PhD from New York University and has taught at all levels from elementary school through graduate school. He is currently teaching at Adelphi University and LaGuardia Community College, where he was chairman of the mathematics department. He has authored nine college textbooks through twenty-five editions.
Anthony’s community service has included membership on the boards of directors of the Polish-American Museum Foundation, Catholic Adoptive Parents Association, and Family Focus Adoptive Services. He was the president of the Italian-American Faculty Association of the City University of New York and the founding chairman of the board of the Italian-American Legal Defense and Higher Education Fund, Inc. He and his wife, Susan, are proud parents of three children–Anthony, Michael, and Jennifer–and grandparents of Calvin and Jackson. He enjoys tennis and twice has been ranked #1 for his age group in the Eastern Section by the United States Tennis Association.
Dolores M. Shrimpton is Professor emerita of Nursing at Kingsborough Community College (CUNY), where she was Chairperson of the department for thirteen years. She received a diploma in nursing from Kings Country Hospital Center School of Nursing, a BS from C.W. Post College, an MA in nursing administration from New York University, and a post-Master’s certificate in nursing education from Adelphi University. She is a member of the Upsilon and Mu Upilson Chapters of Sigma Theta Tau. She has taught a wide variety of courses in practical nursing, diploma, and associate degree nursing programs. She has authored three college nursing books through seven editions.
Dolores has held many leadership positions in nursing, including Board Member, Vice-President, and President of the NYS Associate Degree Nursing Council. She was the Co-Chair of the CUNY Nursing Discipline Council, and Member of the Board of Directors and Co-President of the Brooklyn Nursing Partnership. She has served on a number of Advisory Boards of LPN, associate degree, and baccalaureate degree nursing programs. She is a recipient of the Presidential Award in Nursing Leadership from the Nurses Association of Long Island (NACLI) as well as of the Mu Upsilon award for Excellence in Nursing Education and Excellence in Nursing Leadership. The Brooklyn Nursing Partnership has also recognized her for her commitment to nursing.
Dolores lives in Brooklyn, New York, and enjoys cooking and spending time with her grandchildren, Brooke Elizabeth, Paige Dolores, Jack Paul, and their parents, Kim and Shawn. She also enjoys traveling and spending time with friends and family in Harwich Port, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Table of Contents
Unit 1 Basic Calculation Skills and Introduction to Medication Administration 1 Chapter 1 Review of Arithmetic for Dosage Calculations 2 Diagnostic Test of Arithmetic 3 Changing Decimal Numbers and Whole Numbers to Fractions 5 Calculator 6 Ratios 7 Changing Fractions to Decimal Numbers 8 Rounding Decimal Numbers 10 Rounding Off 10 Rounding Down and Rounding Up 10 Adding Decimal Numbers 11 Subtracting Decimal Numbers 12 Multiplying Decimal Numbers 12 Dividing Decimal Numbers 13 Estimating Answers 14 Multiplying Fractions 15 Dividing Fractions 16 Complex Fractions 18 Addition and Subtraction of Fractions 19 Same Denominators 19 Different Denominators 20 Percentages 21 Percent of Change 23 Summary 24 Practice Sets 24 Chapter 2 Safe and Accurate Medication Administration 28 The Medication Administration Process 29 Preventing Medication Errors 29 Six Rights of Medication Administration 30 The Right Drug 30 The Right Dose 31 The Right Route and Form 32 The Right Time 36 The Right Patient 37 The Right Documentation 38 Drug Prescriptions 39 Medication Orders 42 Types of Medication Orders 43 Components of a Medication Order 43 Medication Administration Records 46 Technology in the Medication Administration Process 51 Drug Labels 53 Combination Drugs 57 Controlled Substances 58 Drug Information 58 Prescription Drug Package Inserts 59 Over-the-Counter (OTC) Labels 59 Summary 63 Practice Sets 64 Chapter 3 Dimensional Analysis 77 Introduction to Dimensional Analysis 78 The Mathematical Foundation for Dimensional Analysis 78 Changing a Single Unit of Measurement to Another Single Unit of Measurement 80 Simple (One-Step) Problems with Single Units of Measurement 80 Complex (Multi-Step) Problems with Single Units of Measurement 84 Changing One Rate to Another Rate 88 Simple (One-Step) Problems with Rates 88 Complex (Multi-Step) Problems with Rates 90 Summary 93 Practice Sets 93 Unit 2 Systems of Measurement 97 Chapter 4 The Household and Metric Systems 98 The Household System 99 Liquid Volume in the Household System 99 Weight in the Household System 100 Length in the Household System 101 Decimal-Based Systems 102 The Metric System 103 Liquid Volume in the Metric System 104 Weight in the Metric System 106 Length in the Metric System 109 Summary 110 Practice Sets 110 Chapter 5 Converting from One System of Measurement to Another 117 Equivalents of Common Units of Measurement 118 Metric-Household Conversions 119 Volume Conversions 119 Weight Conversions 121 Length Conversions 122 Summary 124 Practice Sets 124 Unit 3 Oral and Parenteral Medications 131 Chapter 6 Oral Medications 132 Simple (One-Step) Problems 133 Medication in Solid Form 133 Medication in Liquid Form 137 Medications Measured in Milliequivalents 141 Complex (Multi-Step) Problems 143 Dosages Based on the Size of the Patient 149 Dosages Based on Body Weight 149 Dosages Based on Body Surface Area (BSA) 152 BSA Formulas 152 Summary 155 Case Study 6.1 156 Practice Reading Labels 158 Practice Sets 165 Chapter 7 Syringes 175 Parts of a Syringe 176 Needles 176 Commonly Used Sizes of Hypodermic Syringes 177 Insulin 182 Insulin Syringes 182 Types of Insulin 184 Insulin Pens 186 Insulin Pumps 186 Measuring Two Types of Insulin in One Syringe 189 Premixed Insulin 191 Insulin Coverage/Sliding-Scale Calculations 192 Prefilled Syringes 192 Safety Syringes 194 Needleless Syringes 194 Dosing Errors with Syringes 195 Summary 196 Case Study 7.1 196 Practice Sets 201 Chapter 8 Solutions 214 Introduction 215 Strengths of Solutions Using Explicit Units of Measurement 215 Strengths of Solutions as Ratios, Fractions, and Percents 215 Liquid Solutes 217 Dry Solutes 219 Determining the Amount of Solute in a Given Amount of Solution 221 Determining the Amount of Solution that Contains a Given Amount of Solute 224 Irrigating Solutions, Soaks, and Oral Feedings 226 Summary 227 Case Study 8.1 228 Practice Sets 231 Chapter 9 Parenteral Medications 237 Parenteral Medications 238 Parenteral Medications Supplied as Liquids 238 Parenteral Medications Supplied in Powdered Form 245 How to Use a Mix-O-Vial 251 Heparin 253 Summary 259 Case Study 9.1 259 Practice Sets 262 Unit 4 Infusions and Pediatric Dosages 277 Chapter 10 Flow Rates and Durations of Enteral and Intravenous Infusions 278 Introduction to Enteral and Intravenous Solutions 279 Enteral Feedings 279 Intravenous Infusions 280 Intravenous Solutions 280 Gravity Systems and Pumps 283 Calculations for Infusions 285 Finding the Flow Rate on a Pump 286 Finding the Volume Infused Using a Pump 287 Finding the Duration of an Infusion Using a Pump 287 Finding the Flow Rate (Drip Rate) Using a Gravity System 288 Finding the Volume Infused Using a Gravity System 291 Finding the Duration of an IV Using a Gravity System 292 Adjusting the Flow Rate of an IV 294 Fluid Balance: Intake/Output 296 Summary 297 Case Study 10.1 297 Practice Sets 298 Chapter 11 Flow Rates and Dosage Rates for Intravenous Medications 304 Intravenous Administration of Medications 305 Intravenous Piggyback Infusions 305 Finding the Dosage Rate 306 Converting IV Dosage Rates to Flow Rates 309 Converting IV Flow Rates to Dosage Rates 311 Safe Dose Range 311 Determining Infused Volume and Duration of Infusion 312 IV Push 313 Compound Rates 316 Adding Medication to an IVPB Bag 319 Titrated Medications 323 Summary 326 Case Study 11.1 326 Practice Sets 327 Chapter 12 Pediatric Dosages 334 Pediatric Drug Dosages 335 Oral Medications 335 Parenteral Medications 336 Dosages Based on Body Size 336 Dosages Based on Body Weight 336 Dosages Based on BSA 339 Determining Safe Dosage Range 340 Intravenous Medications 343 Using a Volume-Control Chamber 344 Calculating Daily Fluid Maintenance 347 Summary 349 Case Study 12.1 350 Practice Sets 351 Comprehensive Self-Tests 360 Appendices 373 Appendix A Answer Section 374 Appendix B FDA and ISMP Lists of Look-Alike Drug Names with Recommended Tall Man Letters 392 Appendix C Commonly Used Abbreviations 397 Appendix D Units of Measurement in Metric and Household Systems 399 Appendix E Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Conversions 400 Appendix F Diluting Stock Solutions 402 Appendix G Apothecary System 405 Index 410