A variety of topics are presented in this book that seek to reflect on medical history before and after the golden age of the Medical Renaissance. These topics include newborn care, the story of adolescence, behavioral pediatrics, psychopharmacology, substance abuse, psychodermatology, the story of diabetes mellitus, specific organ systems that range from the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and the heart in pediatrics, and other motifs. Reflections on adolescence are provided based on society's classic disdain and envy of its youth seen throughout the ages of human life. In this book, the authors include a variety of scholars, who stood on the shoulders of giants and made exponential progress in medicine of their own. Throughout the centuries, from the Mesopotamian masters to present physicians, these giants advanced the field of medicine to represent what has been understood as the standard of current medical care, and perhaps we can learn what it will be like in the future. These esteemed experts learned from the past, made mistakes, exhibited amazing courage, and faced scientific and sometimes sacerdotal criticism. Their courage was astonishing, as many were confronted by minacious, inauspicious, portentous, and unpropitious attacks on their ethics and accomplishments. However, they persisted and were able to develop verifiable data that others could independently substantiate and sometimes improve upon for the benefit of all humans. This book celebrates their astounding, awe-inspiring achievements.