This book extensively reviews the dairy, beverage and distilled spirits applications of membrane processing techniques. The four main techniques of membrane filtration are covered: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.
The book is divided into four informal sections. The first part provides an overview of membrane technology, including the main scientific principles; the major membrane types and their construction; cleaning and disinfection; and historical development. The second part focuses on dairy applications including liquid and fermented milks; cheese; whey; and milk concentrates. The third part of the book addresses beverage applications including mineral waters, fruit juices and sports drinks, and the final part looks at membrane filtration in the production of beers, wines and spirits.
About the Author
A.Y. Tamime is a Consultant in Dairy Science andTechnology, Ayr, UK. He is the Series Editor of the SDT’sTechnical Book Series.
Table of Contents
Preface to the Technical Series xiiiPreface xvContributors xvii1 Development of Membrane Processes 1K. Smith1.1 Historical background 11.2 Basic principles of membrane separations 31.2.1 Depth versus screen filters 31.2.2 Isotropic versus anisotropic membranes 41.2.3 Cross-flow filtration 51.2.4 Requirements of membrane processes 71.3 Types of membrane separations 81.3.1 Reverse osmosis 81.3.2 Nanofiltration 81.3.3 Ultrafiltration 91.3.4 Microfiltration 91.4 Theory of membrane transport 91.4.1 Transport models 91.4.2 Reverse osmosis/nanofiltration membranes 101.4.3 Ultrafiltration/microfiltration membranes 111.5 Factors affecting membrane separations 111.5.1 Factors affecting reverse osmosis/nanofiltration separations111.5.2 Factors affecting ultrafiltration/microfiltration separations121.5.3 System parameters 131.6 General characteristics of membrane processes 131.6.1 Retention and rejection 131.6.2 Pore size 141.6.3 Molecular weight cut-off 141.6.4 Flux 141.6.5 Concentration factor 151.6.6 Membrane life 151.7 Conclusion and future development 15Suggested literature 152 Principles of Membrane Filtration 17A. Hausmann, M.C. Duke and T. Demmer2.1 Introduction and definitions 172.1.1 Membrane processes 172.1.2 Definitions of membrane processes 182.2 Membrane properties based on materials 242.2.1 Membrane structure 242.2.2 Material properties 262.3 Flux behaviour in pressure-driven membrane operations 292.3.1 Modelling flux behaviour 302.3.2 Influence of chemical potential on the reverse osmosisprocess 352.4 Effects of feed characteristics and operating parameter onseparation efficiency 372.4.1 Effects of feed components 372.4.2 Effects of operating parameters 402.5 Cross-flow systems 432.5.1 Background 432.5.2 Single-pass versus feed-and-bleed operation 432.6 Recent membrane processes following different operatingprinciples 442.6.1 Forward osmosis 442.6.2 Osmotic distillation 452.6.3 Membrane distillation 462.7 Conclusions 47References 473 Commercial Membrane Technology 52K. Smith3.1 Introduction: polymers used in membrane manufacture 523.1.1 Cellulose acetate 523.1.2 Polysulphone/polyethersulphone 533.1.3 Polyamide 543.1.4 Polyvinylidene fluoride 553.1.5 Thin-film composites 553.2 Other materials used for membranes 563.2.1 Ceramic membranes 563.2.2 Metallic membranes 573.3 Membrane configuration 583.3.1 Spiral-wound 593.3.2 Tubular 613.3.3 Hollow fibre 633.3.4 Plate and frame 643.4 Modes of operation 653.4.1 Diafiltration 663.4.2 Batch design 673.4.3 Continuous design 693.5 Conclusion and future developments 71Suggested literature 714 Membrane Fouling, Cleaning and Disinfection 73L.L.A. Koh, M. Ashokkumar and S.E. Kentish4.1 Introduction 734.2 Flux reduction 734.2.1 Membrane resistance 744.2.2 Concentration polarisation 744.2.3 Fouling 804.2.4 Fouling in the beverage industry 834.2.5 Fouling in the dairy industry 834.3 Membrane cleaning and disinfection 844.3.1 Cleaning methods 844.3.2 Chemical cleaning factors 874.3.3 Disinfection 954.3.4 Cleaning procedures 954.3.5 Chemical cleaning agents recovery and reuse 974.4 Recent developments 984.5 Conclusions 994.6 Nomenclature 100References 1025 General Application for the Treatment of Effluent and Reuse ofWastewater 107N.A. Milne and S.R. Gray5.1 General wastewater quality issues 1075.2 General wastewater treatment 1085.2.1 Primary treatment: solids, fats, oils and grease removal1105.2.2 Secondary treatment: biological treatment and the membranebioreactor 1105.2.3 Tertiary treatment: disinfection 1155.2.4 Desalination: nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 1165.3 Water reuse 1175.4 Conclusions and future applications 123References 1246 Liquid Milk Processing 128G. Gesan-Guiziou6.1 Introduction 1286.2 On-farm concentration of milk 1286.3 Protein standardisation by ultrafiltration 1306.3.1 Advantages of protein standardisation 1316.3.2 Regulatory aspects 1326.3.3 Process involved 1336.4 Removal of bacteria by microfiltration 1346.4.1 Microfiltration process: operating conditions andperformances 1346.4.2 Industrial applications 1376.5 Fractionation of fat 1386.6 Removal of somatic cells by microfiltration 1396.7 Conclusions and future trends 140References 1407 Membrane Processing of Fermented Milks 143B. Ozer and A.Y. Tamime7.1 Introduction 1437.2 Microflora of the starter cultures 1447.3 Patterns of production and consumption 1457.4 Manufacturing practice of gel-type (set and stirred) products1457.4.1 Mesophilic–lactic fermentations 1457.4.2 Thermophilic–lactic fermentations 1487.4.3 Yeast–lactic fermentations 1517.4.4 Mould–lactic fermentations 1527.5 Manufacturing practice of concentrated products 1527.5.1 Background 1527.5.2 Concentrated yoghurt 1537.5.3 Shrikhand and chakka 1567.5.4 Ymer 1567.5.5 Skyr 1587.6 Quality control 1587.6.1 Compositional quality 1587.6.2 Microbiological quality 1677.6.3 Organoleptic properties 1687.7 Conclusion 169References 1708 Cheese 176V.V. Mistry8.1 Background 1768.2 Properties of membrane processed concentrates 1778.2.1 Buffering capacity 1778.2.2 Rheology of concentrated milks 1788.2.3 Rennet coagulation 1788.3 Applications of ultrafiltration in cheesemaking 1788.3.1 Protein standardisation 1788.3.2 Medium or intermediate concentrated retentates 1798.3.3 Liquid pre-cheeses concept 1808.3.4 Application of ultrafiltration for fresh and soft cheeses1848.4 Cheese quality 1858.5 Applications of microfiltration in cheesemaking 1868.5.1 Removal of bacteria 1868.5.2 Casein standardisation 1878.5.3 αs-/β-casein ratio adjustment by microfiltration1878.5.4 Recovery of fat and brine 1888.6 Nanofiltration 1888.7 Milk protein concentrates 1898.8 Future potential 189References 1909 Whey Processing 193L. Ramchandran and T. Vasiljevic9.1 Introduction 1939.2 Whey: components, their functionality and uses 1939.3 Problems of traditional whey processing 1959.4 Membranes in whey processing 1969.4.1 Microfiltration 1979.4.2 Ultrafiltration 1989.4.3 Diafiltration 1999.4.4 Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis 2009.4.5 Electrodialysis and other related processes 2009.4.6 Integrated processes 2049.5 Conclusions 204References 20510 Concentrated Milk and Powders 208G. Gesan-Guiziou10.1 Introduction 20810.2 Concentrated milks and powders 20810.2.1 Background 20810.2.2 Production of concentrated whole milk and powder 20910.2.3 Production of concentrated skimmed milk and powder 21110.2.4 Applications of reverse osmosis concentrated milks 21510.2.5 Dulce de Leche 21710.3 Milk protein concentrates 21810.3.1 Manufacture of milk protein concentrates 21810.3.2 Applications of milk protein concentrates 21910.4 Conclusion and future trends 222References 22211 Further Applications of Membrane Filtration in Dairy Processing225J.A. O’Mahony and J.J. Tuohy11.1 Introduction 22511.2 Fractionation of milk proteins using membranes 22611.2.1 Separation of casein and whey proteins in milk 22611.2.2 Fractionation of individual casein proteins 22911.2.3 Fractionation of individual whey proteins 23211.2.4 Fractionation of milk protein hydrolysates 23311.2.5 Enrichment of osteopontin from milk/whey 23811.2.6 Production of microparticulated whey protein 23911.2.7 Isolation and enrichment of growth factors from milk/whey24011.3 Fractionation of milk fat using membranes 24011.3.1 Isolation and enrichment of native milk fat globules24011.3.2 Isolation and enrichment of milk fat globule membrane24211.3.3 Removal of phospholipids from liquid whey 24311.3.4 Filter sterilisation of polyunsaturated fatty acids24411.4 Fractionation of milk carbohydrates using membranes 24511.4.1 Isolation and purification of bovine milk oligosaccharides24511.4.2 Filter sterilisation of lactase 24711.4.3 Lactic acid removal and purification 24711.5 Fractionation of milk salts using membranes 24811.5.1 Demineralisation using membranes 24811.5.2 Demineralisation using electrodialysis 24911.6 Conclusions and future trends 251References 25312 Fruit Juices 262A. Cassano12.1 Introduction 26212.1.1 General Background 26212.1.2 Background to manufacturing practice 26212.2 Fruit juice clarification by microfiltration andultrafiltration 26512.2.1 Microfiltration 26512.2.2 Ultrafiltration 26512.2.3 Selection of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes26612.3 Membrane fouling and membrane cleaning 26612.3.1 Membrane fouling 26612.3.2 Methods of reducing membrane fouling 26712.3.3 Methods of fouling treatment 26812.4 Performance of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes26912.5 Process configurations 27312.6 Quality of the clarified juices 27412.7 Integrated processes 27612.8 Conclusions and future development 277References 27713 Beer and Cider 281J. Bergin and J.J. Tuohy13.1 Introduction 28113.2 Beer brewing process 28213.2.1 Milling 28313.2.2 Mashing 28413.2.3 Wort separation 28413.2.4 Boiling 28713.2.5 Trub separation 28713.2.6 Fermentation 28813.2.7 Clarification 28913.2.8 Beer make-up 29013.2.9 Packaging and microbiological stabilisation 29113.3 Cidermaking process 29213.3.1 Juice extraction and formulation 29213.3.2 Fermentation 29313.3.3 Racking and maturation 29313.3.4 Blending, filtration and packaging 29313.4 Membrane applications in the brewing process 29413.4.1 Wort separation 29513.4.2 Beer filtration and stabilisation 29813.5 Membrane applications in cidermaking 30013.5.1 Background 30013.5.2 Cider clarification 30113.6 Membrane applications common to brewing and cidermaking30213.6.1 Yeast separation and product recovery 30213.6.2 Microbiological stabilisation 30413.6.3 Gas standardisation using membranes 30513.6.4 Water recovery/cleaning-in-place systems 30813.6.5 Alcohol removal for non- or low-alcohol products and maltbeverage production 30913.7 Future opportunities 311References 31314 Wine 316K. Grainger14.1 Background 31614.2 Clarification and filtration methods 31814.2.1 Traditional methods in common use 31814.2.2 Membrane filtration 31914.2.3 Cross-flow microfiltration 32014.3 Membrane fouling 32214.4 Must correction, wine correction and alcohol reduction usingmembrane technologies 32214.4.1 Reverse osmosis 32214.4.2 Ultrafiltration 32414.4.3 Wine correction: reducing alcohol content 32414.4.4 Wine correction: removing acetic acid 32514.4.5 Wine correction: removal of taints 32614.5 Wine stabilisation and pH adjustment 32714.5.1 Tartrate stabilisation 32714.5.2 pH adjustment 32814.6 Conclusions and future developments 328References 33015 Application of Membrane Technology in Vinegar 334F. Lopez15.1 Introduction 33415.2 Process of vinegar making 33515.3 Membrane technology in the production of vinegar 33615.4 Conclusions 338References 338Index 339