The study of how words are represented and processed in the mind has served as a meeting ground for research in psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience. Right now, this domain of study is in the midst of astonishing developments. At the core of these developments are the methodological and analytic advancements that have enabled researchers to address new phenomena and to ask new questions. These new methodologies have also raised fundamental questions concerning the nature of words in the mind, the nature of language processing, and the ways in which data can be understood. This book provides a timely resource written by international leaders in methodological innovation. It offers fundamental insights into how innovative methodological approaches advance lexical research. It also offers the technical knowledge that is essential to that advancement, but which is rarely found in journal reports. This is a methodologically oriented volume designed to be informative, thought provoking, innovative, and perhaps also revolutionary. The contributions in this volume that originally appeared in The Mental Lexicon 5:3 (2010) and 6:1 (2011) are supplemented with several new chapters, as well as with a new and timely introductory chapter titled "Embracing Complexity".