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Cengage Learning
Methods toward a Science of Behavior and Experience / Edition 7

Methods toward a Science of Behavior and Experience / Edition 7

by William J. Ray


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In this revision of his best-selling text, William Ray takes a broad, "philosophy of science" approach, introducing students to the basics of doing science and to the spirit that motivates scientists. Acclaimed in the field for its clarity, comprehensiveness, and accuracy, the text helps students see how scientists get their ideas for their studies and how ideas are turned into testable hypotheses. Ray is noted for his ability to present difficult concepts in a clear, straightforward fashion and for his excellent use of examples and graphs to make concepts easy to understand. For example, he not only illustrates the concept of interaction effect with research examples, he also graphically represents numerous possible outcomes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534538675
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 08/28/2002
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 7.44(w) x 9.52(h) x 0.89(d)

About the Author

William J. Ray is professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State University, where he was the director of the Clinical Training Program from 1991 to 1997. His research focus lies at the interface of clinical psychology and psychophysiology (particularly EEG), as related to anxiety, dissociation, emotionality, and motoric processes. Part of this work has been basic in nature, as reflected in trying to understand what basic psychophysiological measures can tell us, as well as how they can be applied. Current work in the lab focuses on anxiety, lapse of awareness, dissociation, and hypnosis, as well as the use of nonlinear dynamical techniques referred to as chaos. He has published extensively throughout his career, with well over 100 journal publications, presentations and scholarly text publications. He has reviewed for more than 30 journals and numerous government agencies. He was on the accreditation committee for the APA, including its executive board (1995-2000).

Table of Contents

1What Is Science?1
Science as a Way of Knowing3
Common Sense6
The Scientific Approach7
Early Approaches8
Studying Behavior and Experience14
Behavior: A Road into the Subjective Experience of Research Participants17
The People Who Perform Science20
2Introduction to the Methods of Science24
Naturalistic Observation28
The Correlational Approach30
The Experimental Method32
Definitions in the Experimental Method33
Exploratory Research36
Logic and Inference: The Detective Work of Science37
Propositional Logic40
Scientific Observation: The Raw Data of Science44
Evaluating Scientific Research46
Communication in Science46
3Developing the Hypothesis51
Making Our Hypotheses Concrete52
Making Our Hypotheses Logical55
The "I Wonder What Will Happen If" Hypothesis and Inductive Reasoning55
The "I Expect This Would Happen If" Hypothesis and Deductive Reasoning55
Strong Inference56
Creating Testable Research Hypotheses and the Problem of Measurement57
Ideas Come From Everywhere60
Intuition and Revelation68
The Scientist's Guide to Having an Idea69
Tools for Library Research70
Computer Databases72
The Internet76
4Description of Behavior Through Numerical Representation81
Scales of Measurement83
Nominal Measurement83
Ordinal Measurement83
Interval Measurement85
Ratio Measurement85
Identifying Scales of Measurement85
Measurement and Statistics86
Pictorial Description of Frequency Information87
Descriptive Statistics90
Measures of Central Tendency90
Measures of Variability92
Pictorial Presentations of Numerical Data97
Transforming Data98
Standard Scores99
Measure of Association100
5Inferential Statistics: Making Statistical Decisions109
The Normal Distribution115
Hypothesis Testing120
Example of Inferential Statistics: The t-Test121
6Testing the Hypothesis: A Conceptual Introduction127
The Context of Experimentation: An Example130
Types of Variation131
Chance Variation131
Systematic Variation Due to the Independent Variable132
Systematic Variation Due to Confounds133
Statistical Hypothesis Testing134
Threats to Internal Validity138
Statistical Regression140
Selection-Maturation Interaction141
Diffusion or Imitation of Treatments141
7Control: The Keystone of the Experimental Method146
Control Achieved Through Participant Assignment and Selection147
Random Sampling154
Random Assignment154
Control Achieved Through Experimental Design155
Control as Related to the Logic of Experimentation158
8Applying the Logic of Experimentation: Between-Subjects Designs163
Between-Subjects Design Terminology164
Completely Randomized Design165
Multilevel Completely Randomized Designs165
Factorial Design170
Factorial Designs: The Logic of Experimentation and the Interaction Effect174
Eight Possible Outcomes of 2 x 2 Factorial Experiments180
Interpretation of Subject Variables with Factorial Designs187
Advantages of Factorial Designs188
9Extending the Logic of Experimentation: Within-Subjects and Matched-Subjects Approaches192
Within-Subjects Designs193
An Illustration of Within-Subjects Research195
Advantages and Disadvantages of Within-Subjects Designs197
Repeated Measures200
Mixed Designs201
Matched-Subjects Procedures203
Matching as a Control Procedure204
Matching as an Experimental Procedure205
10The Ecology of the Experiment: The Scientist and Research Participant in Relation to Their Environments210
Experimenter Factors214
Biased Data Collection215
Biased Interactions with Research Participants218
Some Ways to Avoid Experimenter Bias220
Subject Factors222
Placebo Factors224
Demand Characteristics225
Cultural and Social Bias228
11Quasi-Experimental, Correlational, and Naturalistic Observational Designs232
Closed and Open Systems233
Quasi-Experimental Designs241
Time Series Design241
Interrupted Time Series Design242
Multiple Time Series Design245
Nonequivalent Before-After Design248
Retrospective and Ex Post Facto Designs249
Correlational Procedures251
Naturalistic Observations253
Concerns While Making Naturalistic Observations255
To Conceal or Not to Conceal; To Participate or Not to Participate257
Strengths and Weaknesses of Naturalistic Observation258
12Single-Subject Designs261
Types of Single-Subject Designs264
Case Study Designs265
Naturalistic Case Studies265
One-Shot Case Studies266
Experimental Single-Subject Designs268
Reversal Design269
Multiple-Baseline Design273
Multielement Design275
Making Sense of Single-Subject Experimental Results275
Alternative Types of Single-Subject Research276
13Questionnaires, Survey Research, and Sampling279
Question Construction and Formats282
Types of Questions282
General Considerations286
Special Techniques for Reactive Questions288
Methods of Administering a Survey289
Face-to-Face Interviews289
Telephone Interviews292
Mail Questionnaires293
Surveys: Conclusion294
Probability Sampling296
Nonprobability Sampling298
Sample Size299
Reliability and Validity300
Ethical Considerations of Psychological Experimentation306
The Rights of the Scientist and the Research Participant307
The Experiment as an Ethical Problem308
Ingredients of the Initial Scientist-Participant Dialogue308
Voluntary Participation308
Informed Consent309
The Rights of the Research Participant and the Responsibilities of the Experimenter310
What is Harmful to a Research Participant?310
Ethical Guidelines of the American Psychological Association311
Institutional Review Board313
Deception Studies315
Obedience-to-Authority Research315
It's Not a Crime the Way I See It319
Bypassing the Bypass320
Debriefing: When Is Enough Enough?321
The Participant as Colleague322
Animals as Subjects323
15Sharing the Results331
Communication with Other Scientists: The Scientific Article332
Preparing Your Article332
Publishing Your Article350
What Makes a Good Article?351
16Beyond Method356
Dimensions of Research357
Beginning with a Question359
Limitations to Finding Answers360
Our Tools360
Our Shared View of the World361
Our Psychological Limitations363
Science as a Complex Human Process364
Value in Science366
Science as a Means of Transcendence368
Appendix AGuidelines to Reduce Biased Language in Scientific Writing375
Appendix BPrinted Article387
Appendix CArticle Manuscript401
Appendix DTables415

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