Micro & Nano-Engineering of Fuel Cells

Micro & Nano-Engineering of Fuel Cells

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Overview

Micro & Nano-Engineering of Fuel Cells by Dennis Y.C. Leung

Fuel cells supply electricity by converting fuels via electrochemical reactions. The energy conversion process is highly efficient. The process is also clean as it produces no or low emission depending on the fuel used. There is a high potential that fuel cells can replace conventional batteries to achieve a higher environmental performance. However, in spite of the attractive system efficiencies and environmental benefits associated with fuel-cell technology, it has proven to be difficult to develop the scientific concepts into commercially viable industrial products. These problems have often come from both scientific and engineering issues. This edited book brings together leading researchers in various fields of engineering science from all over the world discussing the recent trends and needs on micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells, creating new engineering knowledge and optimizing the system on a micro and nano-scale. The small scales discussed in this book are particularly important, because (1) most of the underlying interactions governing the fuel cell performance occur at a scale from nanometers to microns; and (2) some engineering tasks that cannot be accomplished in macro-scale are proven achievable in micro and nano-scales. The book can be categorized into two subject areas: theoretical foundation research and applications research. The latest progress in the engineering science for electrolyte, electrode materials and whole-cell design are covered.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780415644396
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 05/25/2015
Series: Sustainable Energy Developments Series
Pages: 338
Product dimensions: 6.75(w) x 9.75(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

About the book series
Editorial board
List of contributors
Preface
About the editors

1. Pore-scale water transport investigation for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells
Takemi Chikahisa & Yutaka Tabe
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Basics of cell performance and water management
1.3 Water transport in the cell channels
1.3.1 Channel types
1.3.2 Observation of water production, temperatures, and current density distributions
1.3.3 Characteristics of porous separators
1.4 Water transport in gas diffusion layers
1.4.1 Water transport with different anisotropic fiber directions of the GDL
1.4.2 Water transport simulation in GDLs with different wettability gradients
1.5 Water transport through micro-porous layers (MPL)
1.5.1 Effect of the MPL on the cell performance
1.5.2 Observation of the water distribution in the cell
1.5.3 Analysis of water transport through MPL
1.5.4 Mechanism for improving cell performance with an MPL
1.6 Transport phenomena and reactions in the catalyst layers
1.6.1 Introduction
1.6.2 Analysis model and formulation
1.6.3 Results of analysis and major parameters in CL affecting performance
1.7 Water transport in cold starts
1.7.1 Cold start characteristics and the effect of the start-up temperature
1.7.2 Observation of ice distribution and evaluation of the freezing mechanism
1.7.3 Strategies to improve cold start performance
1.8 Summary

2. Reconstruction of PEM fuel cell electrodes with micro- and nano-structures
Ulises Cano-Castillo & Romeli Barbosa-Pool
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 The technology: complex operational features required
2.1.1.1 Nano-technology to the rescue?
2.1.1.2 Challenges: technical and economic goals still remain
2.2 Catalyst layers’structure: a reason to reconstruct
2.2.1 Heterogeneous materials
2.2.2 First steps for the reconstruction of catalyst layers
2.2.2.1 Structural features matter
2.2.2.2 Scaling – a matter of perspectives
2.2.3 Stochastic reconstruction – scaling method
2.2.3.1 Statistical signatures
2.2.4 Let’s reconstruct
2.2.4.1 Features of reconstructed structures
2.2.4.2 Effective ohmic conductivity
2.2.4.3 CL voltage distribution, electric and ionic transport coefficients
2.2.5 Structural reconstruction: annealing route
2.2.5.1 Image processing for statistical realistic information
2.2.5.2 Structural reconstruction – annealing method
2.2.5.3 Statistical functions – two scales
2.2.5.4 Effective electric resistivity simulation from a reconstructed structure
2.3 New material support and new catalyst approaches
2.3.1 Carbon nanotubes “decorated” with platinum
2.3.1.1 Substantial differences for CNT structures
2.3.1.2 CNT considerations when inputting component properties
2.3.2 Core-shell-based catalyzers
2.3.2.1 General considerations for reconstruction
2.4 Concluding remarks

3. Multi-scale model techniques for PEMFC catalyst layers
Yu Xiao, Jinliang Yuan & Ming Hou
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Physical and chemical processes at different length and time scales
3.1.2 Needs for multi-scale study in PEMFCs
3.2 Models and simulation methods at different scales
3.2.1 Atomistic scale models at the catalyst surface
3.2.1.1 Dissociation and adsorption processes on the Pt surface
3.2.1.2 Reaction thermodynamics
3.2.2 Modeling methods at nano-/micro-scales
3.2.2.1 Molecular dynamics modeling method
3.2.2.2 Monte Carlo methods
3.2.3 Models at meso-scales
3.2.3.1 Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD)
3.2.3.2 Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM)
3.2.3.3 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method
3.2.4 Simulation methods at macro-scales
3.3 Multi-scale model integration technique
3.3.1 Integration methods on atomistical scale to nano-scale
3.3.2 Microscopic CL structure simulation
3.3.3 Analyses of predicted CLs microscopic structures
3.3.3.1 Microscopic parameters evaluation
3.3.3.2 Primary pore structure analysis
3.3.4 Model validation
3.3.4.1 Pore size distribution
3.3.4.2 Pt particle size distribution
3.3.4.3 The average active Pt surface areas
3.3.5 Coupling electrochemical reactions in CLs
3.4 Challenges in multi-scale modeling for PEMFC CLs
3.4.1 The length scales
3.4.2 The time scales
3.4.3 The integration algorithms
3.5 Conclusions

4. Fabrication of electro-catalytic nano-particles and applications to proton exchange membrane fuel cells Maria Victoria Martínez Huerta & Gonzalo García
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Overview of the electro-catalytic reactions
4.2.1 Hydrogen oxidation reaction
4.2.2 H2/CO oxidation reaction
4.2.3 Methanol oxidation reaction
4.2.4 Oxygen reduction reaction
4.3 Novel nano-structures of platinum
4.3.1 State-of-the-art supported Pt catalysts
4.3.2 Surface structure of Pt catalysts
4.3.3 Synthesis and performance of Pt catalysts
4.4 Binary and ternary platinum-based catalysts
4.4.1 Electro-catalysts for CO and methanol oxidation reactions
4.4.2 Electro-catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction
4.4.3 Synthetic methods of binary/ternary catalysts
4.5 New electro-catalyst supports
4.6 Conclusions

5. Ordered mesoporous carbon-supported nano-platinum catalysts: application in direct methanol fuel cells
Parasuraman Selvam & Balaiah Kuppan
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Ordered mesoporous silicas
5.3 Ordered mesoporous carbons
5.3.1 Hard-template approach
5.3.2 Soft-template approach
5.4 Direct methanol fuel cell
5.5 Electrocatalysts for DMFC
5.5.1 Bulk platinum catalyst
5.5.2 Platinum alloy catalyst
5.5.3 Nano-platinum catalyst
5.5.4 Catalyst promoters
5.6 OMC-supported platinum catalyst
5.6.1 Pt/NCCR-41
5.6.2 Pt/CMK-3
5.7 Summary and conclusion

6. Modeling the coupled transport and reaction processes in a micro-solid-oxide fuel cell
Meng Ni
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Model development
6.2.1 Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model
6.2.2 Electrochemical model
6.2.3 Chemical model
6.3 Numerical methodologies
6.4 Results and discussion
6.4.1 Base case
6.4.2 Temperature effect
6.4.3 Operating potential effect
6.4.4 Effect of electrochemical oxidation rate of CO
6.5 Conclusions

7. Nano-structural effect on SOFC durability
YaoWang & Changrong Xia
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Aging mechanism of SOFC electrodes
7.2.1 Aging mechanism of the anodes
7.2.1.1 Grain coarsening
7.2.1.2 Redox cycling
7.2.1.3 Coking and sulfur poison
7.2.2 Aging mechanism of cathodes
7.3 Stability of nano-structured electrodes
7.3.1 Fabrication and electrochemical properties of nano-structured electrodes
7.3.2 Models about nano-structured effects on stability
7.3.2.1 Nano-size effects on isothermal grain growth
7.3.2.2 Nano-structured effects on durability against thermal cycle
7.4 Long-term performance of nano-structured electrodes
7.4.1 Anodes
7.4.1.1 Enhanced interfacial stabilities of nano-structured anodes
7.4.1.2 Durability of nano-structured anodes against redox cycle
7.4.1.3 Durability of nano-structured anodes against coking and sulfur poisoning
7.4.2 Cathodes
7.4.2.1 LSM
7.4.2.2 LSC
7.4.2.3 LSCF
7.4.2.4 SSC
7.5 Summary

8. Micro- and nano-technologies for microbial fuel cells
Hao Ren & Junseok Chae
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Electricity generation fundamental
8.2.1 Electron transfer of exoelectrogens
8.2.2 Voltage generation
8.2.3 Parameter for MFC characterization
8.2.3.1 Open circuit voltage (EOCV)
8.2.3.2 Areal/volumetric current density (imax,areal, imax,volumetric) and areal/volumetric power density (pmax,areal, pmax,volumetric)
8.2.3.3 Internal resistance (Ri) and areal resistivity (ri)
8.2.3.4 Efficiency – Coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy conversion efficiency (EE)
8.2.3.4.1 Coulombic efficiency (CE)
8.2.3.4.2 Energy conversion efficiency (EE)
8.2.3.5 Biofilm morphology
8.3 Prior art of miniaturized MFCs
8.4 Promises and future work of miniaturized MFCs
8.4.1 Promises
8.4.2 Future work
8.4.2.1 Further enhancing current and power density
8.4.2.2 Applying air-cathodes to replace potassium ferricyanide
8.4.2.3 Reducing the cost of MFCs
8.5 Conclusion

9. Microbial fuel cells: the microbes and materials
Keaton L. Lesnik & Hong Liu
9.1 Introduction
9.2 How microbial fuel cells work
9.3 Understanding exoelectrogens
9.3.1 Origins of microbe-electrode interactions
9.3.2 Extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanisms
9.3.2.1 Redox shuttles/mediators
9.3.2.2 c-type cytochromes
9.3.2.3 Conductive pili
9.3.3 Interactions and implications
9.4 Anode materials and modifications
9.4.1 Carbon-based anode materials
9.4.2 Anode modifications
9.5 Cathode materials and catalysts
9.5.1 Cathode construction
9.5.2 Catalysts
9.5.3 Cathode modifications
9.5.4 Biocathodes
9.6 Membranes/separators
9.7 Summary
9.8 Outlook

10. Modeling and analysis of miniaturized packed-bed reactors for mobile devices powered by fuel cells
Srinivas Palanki & Nicholas D. Sylvester
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Reactor and fuel cell modeling
10.2.1 Design equations of the reactor
10.2.2 Design equations for the fuel cell stack
10.3 Applications
10.3.1 Methanol-based system
10.3.2 Ammonia-based system
10.4 Conclusions

11. Photocatalytic fuel cells
Michael K.H. Leung, BinWang, Li Li & Yiyi She
11.1 Introduction
11.2 PFC concept
11.2.1 Fuel cell
11.2.2 Photocatalysis
11.2.3 Photocatalytic fuel cell
11.3 PFC architecture and mechanisms
11.3.1 Cell configurations
11.3.2 Bifunctional photoanode
11.3.2.1 Photocatalyst
11.3.2.2 Substrate materials
11.3.2.3 Catalyst deposition methods
11.3.3 Cathode
11.4 Electrochemical kinetics
11.4.1 Current-voltage characteristics
11.4.1.1 Ideal thermodynamically predicted voltage
11.4.1.2 Activation losses
11.4.1.3 Ohmic losses
11.4.1.4 Concentration losses
11.4.2 Efficiency of a photocatalytic fuel cell
11.4.2.1 Pseudo-photovoltaic efficiency
11.4.2.2 External quantum efficiency
11.4.2.3 Internal quantum efficiency
11.4.2.4 Current doubling effect
11.5 PFC applications
11.5.1 Wastewater problems
11.5.2 Practical micro-fluidic photocatalytic fuel cell (MPFC) applications
11.6 Conclusion

12. Transport phenomena and reactions in micro-fluidic aluminum-air fuel cells
HuizhiWang, Dennis Y.C. Leung, Kwong-Yu Chan, Jin Xuan & Hao Zhang
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Mathematical model
12.2.1 Problem description
12.2.2 Cell hydrodynamics
12.2.3 Charge conservation
12.2.4 Ionic species transport
12.2.5 Electrode kinetics
12.2.5.1 Anode kinetics
12.2.5.2 Cathode kinetics
12.2.5.3 Expression of overpotentials
12.2.6 Boundary conditions
12.3 Numerical procedures
12.4 Results and discussion
12.4.1 Model validation
12.4.2 Hydrogen distribution
12.4.3 Velocity distribution
12.4.4 Species distribution
12.4.4.1 Single-phase flow
12.4.4.1.1 Ionic species concentration distributions
12.4.4.1.2 Migration contribution to transverse species transport
12.4.4.2 The effect of bubbles
12.4.5 Current density and potential distributions
12.5 Conclusions

Subject index
Book series page

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