Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis: Viral and Viroid Pathogens, Vol.3 / Edition 1

Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis: Viral and Viroid Pathogens, Vol.3 / Edition 1

by P. Narayanasamy
Pub. Date:
Springer Netherlands

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Microbial Plant Pathogens-Detection and Disease Diagnosis: Viral and Viroid Pathogens, Vol.3 / Edition 1

Viruses, with the primitive structural features are capable of causing diseases in all life forms on the earth. With limited morphological characteristics of the virus particles and lack of physiological functions, the need for the development of techniques based on the characteristics of the viral proteins and genomic nucleic acids was realized in order to detect, identify, differentiate and quantify viruses in the infected plants/planting materials with or without symptoms of infection. Immunoassays based on the antigenic properties of viral capsid proteins have been successfully applied for the detection of viruses in the symptomatic and asymptomatic crop and weed host plant species as well as in the vectors that are involved in the transmission of the viruses infecting crop plants. Development of monoclonal antibody technology has enhanced the sensitivity and specificity of immunoassays especially applied for the differentiation of strains of viruses with different virulence levels. Nucleic acid-based techniques have been demonstrated to have higher levels of sensitivity, specificity, reliability, reproducibility and rapidity. The viroids with only an RNA molecule have been detected by techniques based on the biological characteristics in certain cases. Application of immunoassays for viroid detection is not feasible because of the absence of a protein component that is present in the viruses. Nucleic acid-based techniques are the most reliable and sensitive tests for detection, identification and differentiation of viroids present in plants and planting materials. With the aim of providing a comprehensive knowledge of detection of viruses and viroids and diagnosis of the diseases caused by them, information distilled from extensive literature search is presented to fulfil the requirements of the researchers, teachers and graduate students of various disciplines of biological sciences. Inclusion of numerous protocols in appropriate

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789048197538
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 11/03/2010
Edition description: 2011
Pages: 321
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.24(d)

Table of Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgement ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Microbial Plant Pathogens as a Major Limiting Factor of Crop Production 1

1.2 Discovery of Fungi as Plant Pathogens 2

1.3 Detection of Fungal Plant Pathogens and Disease Diagnosis 2

References 4

2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plants 5

2.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plant Organs 7

2.1.1 Biological Methods 7

2.1.2 Pathogenicity and Host Range 24

2.1.3 Biochemical Methods 26

2.1.4 Immunoassays 33

2.1.5 Nucleic Acid-Based Detection Techniques 52

2.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Seeds and Planting Materials 113

2.2.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Seeds 114

2.2.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Propagative Planting Materials 130

2.2.3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Postharvest Produce 137

Appendix 1 General and Selective Media for Isolation of Fungal Pathogens 144

Appendix 2 Assessment of Vegetative Compatibility Relationships Among Verticillium dahliae Strains (Joaquim and Rowe 1990; Daayf et al. 1995) 146

Appendix 3 Media for Generation and Selection of Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) of Fusarium oxysporum (Correll et al. 1987) 147

Appendix 4 Generation of Antibodies Against Fungi (Banks et al. 1992) 148

Appendix 5 Detection of Botrytis cinerea by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test (Bossi and Dewey 1992) 149

Appendix 6 Quantitative Detection of Mycosphaerella fijiensis by Triple Antibody Sandwich (TAS)-ELISA (Otero et al. 2007) 150

Appendix 7 Detection of Resting Spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Plant Tissues by ELISA (Orihara and Yamamoto 1998) 152

Appendix 8 Detection of Fusarium spp. by Direct Tissue Blot Immunoassay (DTBIA) (Arie et al. 1995; Arie et al. 1998) 153

Appendix 9 Detection of Fusarium spp. in Tomato by Immunofluorescence Assay (Arie et al. 1995) 154

Appendix 10 Detection of Polymyxa graminis by Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) (Delfosse et al. 2000) 154

Appendix 11 Detection of Botrytis cinerea by Protein A-Gold Labeling Technique (Svircev et al. 1986) 155

Appendix 12 Detection of Fungal Pathogens with DNA Probes (Tisserat et al. 1991) 156

Appendix 13 Identification of Fungal Pathogens by Repetitive DNA Polymorphism (Panabieres et al. 1989) 156

Appendix 14 Rapid Extraction of DNA from Fusarium oxysporum (Plyler et al. 1999) 157

Appendix 15 Extraction of Genomic DNA from Claviceps sp. by Magnetic Separation (Scott Jr et al. 2002) 157

Appendix 16 Extraction of DNA from Fungal Cultures (Griffin et al. 2002) 158

Appendix 17 Extraction of Genomic DNA from Phytophthora spp. (Lamour and Finley 2006) 159

Appendix 18 Rapid PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Fungal Pathogen (Harmon et al. 2003) 161

Appendix 19 Detection of Powdery Mildew Pathogens by PCR-mediated Method (Chen et al. 2008) 162

Appendix 20 Detection of Rust Pathogen by PCR-Based Method (Weng et al. 2008) 162

Appendix 21 Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum by Arbitrarily Primed (AP)-PCR (Yoshida et al. 2007) 163

Appendix 22 Detection of Puccinia coronata by Real-Time PCR Assay (Jackson et al. 2006) 164

Appendix 23 Detection of Colletotrichum spp. in Strawberry Plants by Real-Time PCR Assays (Garrido et al. 2009) 165

Appendix 24 Detection of Phytophthora cactorum by RAPD-PCR Technique (Causin et al. 2005) 166

Appendix 25 Detection of Macrophomina phaseolina in Cowpea Seeds by DAS-ELISA Technique (Afouda et al. 2009) 167

Appendix 26 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Soybean Seeds by PCR-RFLP Technique (Zhang et al. 1999) 169

Appendix 27 Detection of Rhynchosporium secalis in Barley Seeds by Competitive PCR (Lee et al. 2002) 170

Appendix 28 Detection of Verticillium dahliae in Olive Seeds by Nested PCR (Karajeh 2006) 171

Appendix 29 Detection of Pythhim spp. in Carrot Tissue by PCR Assay (Klemsdal et al. 2008) 172

References 173

3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in the Environment 201

3.1 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Soil 202

3.1.1 Bioassays 202

3.1.2 Immunoassays 205

3.1.3 Nucleic Acid-Based Techniques 207

3.1.4 Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry 219

3.2 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Water 220

3.2.1 Immunoassays 220

3.2.2 Nucleic Acid-Based Techniques 221

3.3 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Air 223

3.4 Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Alternative Host Plants 230

Appendix 1 Detection of Plasmodiophora barassicae from soil (Orihara and Yamamoto 1998) 231

Appendix 2 Detection of Resting Spores of Pythium myriotylum from Soil by PCR (Wang and Chang 2003) 233

Appendix 3 Detection of Phytophthora sojae in Soils by PCR Assay (Wang et al. 2006) 233

Appendix 4 Detection of Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea from Soil by PCR Assays (Qu et al. 2006) 235

Appendix 5 Extraction of DNA Directly from Soil Samples for PCR-Based Assays (Volossiouk et al. 1995) 236

Appendix 6 Detection of Phytophthora nicotianae in Irrigation Water (Kong et al. 2003) 236

Appendix 7 Detection of Airborne Inoculum of Mycosphaerella brassicae (Kennedy et al. 1999) 237

Appendix 8 Detection of Monilinia fructicola Spores in the Air by Real-Time PCR Assay (Luo et al. 2007) 239

References 240

4 Assessment of Variability in Fungal Plant Pathogens 245

4.1 Methods of Assessment of Variability in Fungal Pathogens 246

4.1.1 Assessment of Variations in Biological Characteristics 246

4.1.2 Assessment of Variations in Biochemical Characteristics 248

4.1.3 Assessment of Variations in Immunological Characteristics 250

4.1.4 Assessment of Variations in Genomic Characteristics 251

4.2 Assessment of Variability in Sensitivity to Chemicals 262

4.2.1 Assessment of Variations in Biological Characteristics 262

4.2.2 Assessment of Variations in Genetic Characteristics 264

Appendix 1 Identification of Guignardia citricarpa by PCR-Based Technique (Peres et al. 2007) 267

References 267

5 Diagnosis of Fungal Diseases of Plants 273

5.1 Choice of Diagnostic Tests for Fungal Pathogens 274

5.1.1 Conventional Methods 274

5.1.2 Molecular Methods 276

5.2 Agencies Involved in Disease Diagnosis 278

5.2.1 Disease Diagnostic Centers 279

5.2.2 Plant Quarantines 281

References 283

Index 285

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