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Chapter 3: Exchange Administration EssentialsWhether you're using Microsoft Exchange 2000 for the first time or honing your skills, you'll need to master many key concepts in order to work effectively with Exchange 2000. You'll need to know
- How the Exchange environment is organized
- How information is stored in Exchange
- What Microsoft Windows processes are used with Exchange
- How Exchange works
Understanding Exchange OrganizationsExchange combines a fairly complex administrative model with an equally complex messaging architecture. Understanding how the administrative model and the messaging architecture are used and integrated isn't easy. So let's begin with a look at how Exchange environments are organized. The root of an Exchange environment is an organization. It's the starting point for the Exchange hierarchy. The boundaries of the Exchange organization define the boundaries of your Exchange environment. In other words, the Exchange information store doesn't provide information on users or servers outside the organization-unless you specifically tell Exchange about these entities.
An Exchange organization can serve several offices and business functions. Typically, each office or business function that it supports has its own server, which runs Exchange 2000. For example, if your company has offices in Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco, you'll probably have at least one server running Exchange at each location. To serve a large user base orhigh-volume messaging needs, you may also have separate servers providing SMTP, POP3, HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol), and instant messaging services. All these servers can be a part of the same Exchange organization.
When you installed Exchange 2000, you were given the opportunity to join an existing organization or to create a new organization. The organization name you assign or join is permanently associated with the Exchange server. Once designated, you cannot change it. As Figure 3-1 shows, you can view the current organization name in Exchange System Manager. Here, the organization name is My Organization....
Figure 3-1. ...The organization is the root of the Exchange environment, and you view it in Exchange System Manager.
Under the organization node you'll find the key components that make up the organization. These components include
- Global Settings
- Administrative groups (which can contain Servers, Tools and Folders)
- Routing groups
Global SettingsGlobal settings apply to all servers and recipients in an organization. The three most common global settings that you'll work with are
- Internet Message Formats These global settings define the acceptable Internet message formats for the organization, as well as the way you can use message formats. The settings that you can define include default message encoding, default character sets, and default MIME extension mapping. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) is the standard used for messages with several parts.
- Message Delivery These global settings define how and when messages are delivered. The settings that you can define include the default postmaster account name, the default quotas, and the default message filters. Message filters allow you to discard messages from specific senders and to redirect messages based on who the sender is.
- Instant Messaging If you install instant messaging services in the organization and your organization uses firewalls, you'll use these global settings to describe the firewall topology and the HTTP proxy servers that are being used.
RecipientsA recipient is an entity that can receive Exchange mail. Recipients include users, contacts, groups, and other resources. You refer to recipients as either mailbox-enabled or mail-enabled. Mailbox-enabled recipients (users) have mailboxes for sending and receiving e-mail messages. Mail-enabled recipients (contacts and groups) have e-mail addresses but no mailboxes. Thus, mail-enabled recipients can receive messages but can't send them.
To manage recipients in your organization, you need to know these key concepts:
- How recipient policies are used Recipient policies define the technique Exchange uses to create addresses for SMTP, cc:Mail, Exchange, X.400, and so forth. For example, you can set a policy for SMTP that creates e-mail addresses by combining an e-mail alias with @domain.com. Thus, during setup of an account for William Stanek, the e-mail alias williams is combined with @domain.com to create the e-mail address email@example.com.
- How address lists are used You use address lists to organize recipients and resources, thus making it easier to find recipients and resources that you want to use, along with their related information. During setup, Exchange creates a number of default address lists. The most commonly used default address list is the global address list, which lists all the recipients in the organization. You can create custom address lists as well.
- How address templates are used Templates define the appearance of recipient information in the address book. When you install Exchange, default templates are set up for users, groups, contacts, public folders, search dialog boxes, and the mailbox agent. By modifying the appropriate template, you can change the appearance of recipient information in the address book.
Administrative GroupsAdministrative groups define the logical structure of an Exchange organization. You use administrative groups to help you organize directory objects and efficiently manage Exchange resources. Administrative groups are best suited to large organizations or to organizations with offices in several locations. In a small or medium-sized company, you may not need to use administrative groups at all.
Using and Enabling Administrative Groups
Another way to think of administrative groups is as logical containers into which you can place directory objects and Exchange resources. For example, you could create administrative groups named Engineering, Marketing, and Administration. Within these groups, you could then define routing groups, policies, servers, public folder trees, and other objects for each department.
When you install Exchange 2000, administrative group support is disabled by default. This is done primarily to simplify the Exchange management process. In System Manager, the lack of the Administrative Group node tells you that administrative group support has been disabled. You can enable support for administrative groups by completing the following steps.
- In System Manager, right-click the organization container, and then select Properties.
- In the General tab of the Properties dialog box, select Display Administrative Groups.
- When you click OK, Exchange enables administrative groups and configures them for the current operations mode.
How you manage administrative groups depends on the operations mode in use. Exchange 2000 has two operations modes:
- Mixed mode When operating in mixed mode, Exchange 2000 can support Exchange 5.0, Exchange 5.5, and Exchange 2000 installations.
- Native mode When operating in native mode, Exchange 2000 supports only Exchange 2000 installations.
By default, when you install Exchange 2000, the operations mode is set to mixed. The mixed mode configuration provides for interoperability with Exchange 5.0 and Exchange 5.5 but limits the capabilities of Exchange 2000. These limitations directly affect the way administrative groups are used and effectively force Exchange 2000 to handle administrative groups in the same way that Exchange 5.5 handles sites.
When running in mixed-mode operations, Exchange 2000 operates as follows:
- Routing groups don't appear by default and can't be created in System Manager. This limitation means that each administrative group has only one routing group. Consequently, you can't implement multiple routing scenarios for a single administrative group.
- You can't move mailboxes from a server in one administrative group to a server in another administrative group. This limitation reduces your flexibility in managing mailboxes.
- Some System Manager commands don't apply to Exchange 5.5. Because of this, you can't use these commands to manipulate an Exchange 5.5 server.
- Exchange 5.5 directory service objects are replicated into Active Directory directory service with read-only properties. This means you can't edit these properties through Active Directory. You will need to use the Exchange Administrator tool for this, which can be installed with Exchange 2000....