Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Unleashed

Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Unleashed

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Overview

Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Unleashed by Greg Todd, Bruce Hallberg, Stephen Wynkoop, Wesley Peace

Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5 Unleashed is a master reference for Microsoft's Exchange Server. It contains all the information an administrator needs to properly install, configure and maintain an Exchange Server system, whether a new installation or an upgrade. Learn to integrate multiple e-mail subsystems and see specific tailoring techniques for the different client workstations. Co-authored by members of Microsoft's Exchange Development team, the book contains advanced troubleshooting and optimization techniques, and gives insider tips on many advanced functions and features.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780672312830
Publisher: Sams
Publication date: 03/19/1998
Series: Unleashed Series
Edition description: Book & CD-ROM
Pages: 1104
Product dimensions: 7.41(w) x 9.13(h) x 1.82(d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 3: Exchange Server Components

by Greg Todd revised by Wesley Peace

Exchange Server is built on a number of components that together comprise the Server. This chapter looks at the components that are new to Exchange Server 5.5 to provide you with a better understanding of what the Server offers. Before starting that process, let's take a quick tour of the Exchange Server and its key features.

Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5, the third release of the product, extends Microsoft's push into standards-based messaging. The features released in this version are designed to support access to the message store from protocols and services commercially available—the Internet protocols. Additionally, Microsoft has taken great strides in improving the performance of the product as well as responding to the needs of the user community with features that might not be readily apparent.

Although there are a number of important improvements in the product, these improvements (listed next) are not evident to the casual user:

Improved Server performance (enhancements in the database)

Elimination of the 16 GB Message Store limitation

Additional Internet Protocol support

Addition of new undelete functionality

Server-side scripting support

Spam control

LDAP writable database access

Exchange Server supports popular electronic mail and Internet protocols—X.400, SMTP, NNTP, LDAP, IMAP4, HTML, and POP3—in addition to the native Microsoft Messaging API (MAPI). This lets users access their Message Store from a number of clients, both Microsoft and third-party.

Exchange was first released as twoproducts: the Exchange Client that came with Windows 95, which was shipped well in advance of Exchange Server 4.0, and Exchange Server 4.0 itself. This caused considerable confusion when talking about Exchange, because it was unclear which product was being referenced. Furthermore, the original Exchange Client that came with Windows 95 did not directly support connecting to Exchange Server 4.0; it had to be upgraded to the Exchange Client that ships with the Exchange Server.

Since then, things have become clearer. To resolve some of the confusion, Microsoft has renamed the messaging software delivered with its operating system products. Specifically, the Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 e-mail client are now called Windows Messaging. With the release of Exchange Server 5.0, Microsoft extended the protocols supported beyond Extended MAPI and made access to the Exchange Server Message Store possible with the Windows Messaging client when using the Internet Mail Service Provider. Exchange Server 5.5 builds on the core provided with the previous version to offer even more support for Internet protocols.

Shortly following the release of Exchange Server 4.0, the Microsoft Office Team introduced a new MAPI client: Outlook. This client provided integration with Office 97 and is a default component of that suite. Outlook provides features beyond those available with the Exchange Server client. Exchange Server 5.0 was the last release of the Exchange Server client. It has been replaced by Outlook in Exchange Server 5.5.

Exchange Server in total is composed of client software and server software. This chapter looks at the components that comprise the server portion of Exchange. As you might imagine, the server is quite a complex piece of work and is becoming more complex as the product evolves. A good understanding of the basic architecture will help you grasp the concepts presented throughout this book, so that's where this chapter begins.

NOTE: I recommend that you take the time to understand the Exchange Server Directory Services and the underlying X.500 database. It is the foundation of the Directory Services in NT 5.0. When NT 5.0 is released and when Exchange is installed in that environment, there will be no Exchange Server Directory Services; it will be a part of the operating system.
Exchange Architecture Overview

Exchange Server has been in development for several years. The resulting product represents the collective effort of not only the Microsoft Exchange team but also hundreds of beta testers. Extensive feedback from these testers has helped Microsoft build a product that in many ways was designed for the industry by the industry.

Microsoft is the first of the mainstream PC software developers to offer a messaging product that is designed from the ground up based on a client/server model. Other popular electronic mail programs, such as Lotus cc:Mail and Microsoft Mail, are based on a shared file system concept rather than client/server architecture.

As far as competition for this product, there are three comparable messaging platforms: Lotus Domino, Oracle InterOffice, and Novell GroupWise. Although the other major vendor, Netscape, does have an offering that competes with Exchange Server, it is not architecturally comparable to Exchange Server.

Client/Server Versus Shared File

The Exchange server has been implemented as a series of NT services built on an industrial-strength fault-tolerant relational database. Exchange implements the electronic messaging architectural components defined by the Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonic (CCITT) to build a high-performance extensible multithreaded messaging server. The CCITT, known in English as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, defines the following major components in an X.400 message handling system: User Agent (UA), Message Transfer Agent (MTA), and Message Store (MS). Because industry-standard protocols are used, connectivity to other compliant electronic mail systems is much more easily implemented.

In contrast, Microsoft Mail, still one of the most widely used e-mail systems on the market, is based on a series of shared files and directories located on a file server's hard disk. Although the simplicity and network operating system independence of the implementation made the program popular, the implementation is based on a passive file structure located on a simple file server. The client software controls all interaction and movement of mail. MS Mail is a single post office solution that doesn't support delivery of e-mail outside its post office. Delivering mail outside the post office requires the addition of an external process, typically running on a separate machine. Large MS Mail (and cc:Mail) installations have not only the post offices to manage, but also the machines that support applications such as External and Dispatch to keep the post offices and directories synchronized.

Exchange has been designed to take advantage of NT Server's architecture by running the MTA process as services and an integral part of the Exchange Server. Other components of this architecture, such as the Information Store itself, also assist with the messaging. Messages destined for users within the same Information Store are handled by the Information Store. It is only when messages must be routed to users outside of the existing server that the MTA is involved.

Connectors are used to provide connectivity between dissimilar protocols and to support communications between remote Exchange sites. Exchange can support communications between organizations, sites, and servers from a single machine. The architecture also helps minimize hardware requirements and points of failure in an implementation, and it greatly increases the scalability of the Exchange server.

MAPI messaging between Exchange servers (within a site) and between Exchange servers and Extended MAPI clients is handled by remote procedure calls (RPC). When the server is opera-ting in an NT domain, it uses NT security to validate access to the user's mailbox. This minimizes the need for the user to remember multiple passwords. RPCs allow Exchange to function over multiple protocols, such as NWLINK (IPX/SPX), TCP/IP, and NetBEUI.

Exchange's directory is based on an X.500-compliant directory structure and support for X.400 addressing. Exchange conforms to the 1984 and 1988 X.400 specification, which is an ISO standard for electronic mail addressing. It is integral to Exchange, and it is used for all internal and external addressing.

The X.400 Model

The X.400 protocol model itself is composed of three components: the Message Transfer Agent (MTA), the User Agent (UA), and the Message Store (MS) (see Figure 3.1). The Microsoft Exchange Server architecture supports all the components shown here.

Figure 3.1. A basic X.400 message handling system is a collection of components that work together to transfer messages.

The message transfer agent portion of the model can be represented by multiple components in Exchange. One example is Exchange's internal MTA, which is used to communicate with another Exchange server's MTA. Other examples include the X.400 Connector and the Site Connector.

The message store portion of the model—called an information store (IS) in Exchange—is composed of two distinct units: the public information store and the private information store. You'll read more about these later in the section "Information Store."

The user agent portion of the model is represented by the clients used to access the information store. In addition to the standard MAPI client supported by Exchange Server 4.0 and 5.0, Exchange 5.5 supports LDAP, POP3, NNTP, HTML, and IMAP4 agents and applications. To ensure that the development community has access to and can develop applications for this new environment, Microsoft has enhanced the Active Messaging API. It is now called Collaborative Data Objects.

The Directory User Agent and Directory System Agent portions of Figure 3.1 are not strictly a part of the X.400 specification. However, they are specified as a part of X.500, which is a separate specification that covers how a directory works internally. There is some natural integration between the two, as shown in the figure.

Administration and Organizational Structure

Exchange adheres to an organizational structure based on a central administration model. The largest administrative unit in this model is the organization, which includes all servers in the messaging infrastructure, both local and remote. Typically, this organization equates to the company or organization name.

Servers in an Exchange organization are grouped by site. A site is a group of servers that share the same directory information and communicate over high-speed, permanent, and synchronous connections. Directory changes and updates in a site are automatically replicated to all servers, thus permitting the sharing of a single organizational directory based on a merge of all the sites' directory information.

Administrative tasks for the Exchange organization are performed from a single interface, the Exchange Administrator program, which can be installed on the same computer as the Exchange Server or on a separate NT Server or Workstation computer. The Administrator is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2. The Exchange Administrator program can be run from either the server or a separate Windows NT computer.

NOTE: The exchange Server takes advantage of the underlying NT domain architecture for user authentication. A single password is used to access both the NT domain and the Exchange Server. This integration with the NT domain alleviates the need to provide a separate password to access a user's mailbox, but it requires that the Exchange server be installed in an NT domain. To some, this single login feature appears to be a problem, but Exchange Server actually uses the NT security model to ensure that the correct user is accessing the mailbox.
If more than one user uses a workstation, you can configure the client to prompt for the user name, password, and domain. To do so, select Tools|Services|Microsoft Exchange Server. Cick Properties and choose the Advanced tab. Uncheck the Use network security during logon box. Integrating with Exchange is not a problem, because it becomes impossible to "spoof" Exchange and open someone else's mail. Because authentication occurs behind the scenes, a rogue user can't get inside the security to defeat it. When a mailbox is created, it is tied to an NT domain account, and only that individual (or someone he has explicitly assigned permissions to) can access that mailbox.

Conversely, the Exchange Administrator can create the NT domain account when a new Exchange user is created and then specify it directly using the Primary Windows NT Account button. This method is typically used to add a single new user, as shown in Figure 3.4. Groups of users can be added using the import option. ...

Table of Contents

I. OVERVIEW.

1. An overview of Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5.
What's in a Name? What's New in Version 5.5 Versus Version 5.0. What's New in Version 5.0 Versus Version 4.0. Current Features and Benefits. Summary.

2. Electronic Messaging Concepts.
Messaging Concepts and Terminology. More Terminology. Messaging Standards. Network Issues. Summary.

3. Exchange Server Components.
Exchange Architecture Overview. Exchange: The Server. Directory Services. Information Store. Message Transfer Agent. System Attendant. Event Services. Directory Synchronization. Key Management. Connectors. Schedule+. Electronic Forms Designer. Summary.

4. Exchange Client Components.
Overview of Features. Architecture. Modularity. MAPI. Information Services. Profiles. Microsoft Schedule+. Summary.

5. Administrative Concepts.
Administrator Roles. Task Overview. Meeting Users' Needs. Establishing Policies and Procedures. Disaster Recovery. Summary.

II. PLANNING.

6. Planning for Optimal Server Performance.
The Number of Users Per Server. Choosing the Right Processor. Choosing the Right Disk Subsystem. Choosing the Right Amount of RAM. Microsoft Exchange Optimizer. Windows NT Performance Monitor Counters. Simulating a User Load with LoadSim. Summary.

7. Considerations for a Successful Rollout.
Physical Considerations. Windows NT Domains. Network Considerations. Server Hardware Design. Naming Conventions. Distribution Lists. Exchange Sites. Sites and NT Domains. Connecting Exchange Sites. Linking Sites. Connectors. User Considerations. Summary.

8. Exchange Server: Migration and Coexistence.
Benefits of Upgrading to Microsoft Exchange Server. Version 5.x. The Coexistence of Versions 4.0 and 5.x. Before You Begin. Upgrading Your Windows NT Server Operating System. MIPS and PowerPC Machines. Exchange Server 4.0 Service Packs. Upgrading Bridgehead Servers. Upgrade Approaches. Scheduling Server Upgrades. Upgrading Servers. Running the Performance Optimizer. Upgrading the Key Management Server. Installing Version 4.0 Servers After Upgrading to Version 5.x. Summary.

9. Exchange Server and the Internet.
Why Is Internet Support So Darned Important? Planning to Use Internet Protocols. Support for Internet Standards in Exchange Server 5.5. Connecting Exchange Server to the Internet. Internet References. Summary.

10. Migrating from Lotus cc:Mail.
Planning for a Smooth Migration. Tools of the Trade. Sample Roadmap for cc:Mail Migration. Summary.

11. Migrating from Microsoft Mail.
Crash Conversion Versus Staged Migration. Crash Conversion: Directory Export/Import. Message Transfer: Microsoft Mail Connector. Directory Synchronization. Retiring the MS Mail SMTP Gateway. Summary.

III. IMPLEMENTATION.

12. Installing Microsoft Exchange Server.
Editions of Exchange Server. Before You Run Setup. Running Setup. Finishing Setup: Microsoft Exchange Optimizer. Microsoft Exchange Server Icons. Installing the Microsoft Exchange Server Enterprise. Edition in a Clustered Environment. Summary.

13. Configuring Basic Server Operations.
Exchange Administrator Program Overview. Basic Server Operations Overview. Configuring the Exchange Directory. Configuring the Information Store. Public Folders. Configuring the Message Transfer Agent. Configuring the System Attendant. Summary.

14. Installing Microsoft Exchange Clients.
The Outlook Family. Preinstallation Checklist. Stand-Alone Installations. Installing for the Enterprise. Internet Explorer Administration Kit. Client Install Point. Administrative Installation. Outlook Setup Editor. Network Installation Wizard. Systems Management Server. Summary.

15. Configuring Microsoft Exchange Clients.
Architecture Review. The Outlook Family. Client Configuration. Profiles and Information Services. Folders. RAS and Working Offline. Address Books. Other User Options. Summary.

16. Connecting to Other Mail Systems.
Microsoft Mail Connector. Lotus cc:Mail Connector. Internet Mail Service (IMS). X.400 Connector. Summary.

17. The Internet Mail Service.
Internet and IMS Terminology. What Is the IMS, and How Is It Different from the IMC? IMS Architecture. Using the IMS: Connectivity Scenarios. Internet/Intranet/Extranet. Installation and Configuration. Common Questions and Issues. Summary.

18. Connecting to Other Exchange Sites.
Different Messaging Connectors. Choosing a Connector. Multiple Connectors. How Does Exchange Select a Connector? Property Pages Appearing in All Connectors. Site Connector. The X.400 Connector. Dynamic RAS Connector. Internet Mail Service. Summary.

19. Configuring Directory Replication.
Directory Replication Within a Site. Directory Replication Between Sites. Connected Sites. Configuring the Directory Replication Connector. Summary.

IV. ADMINISTRATION.

20. Directory Synchronization with Microsoft Mail.
Directory Synchronization Overview. Configuring Exchange as the DirSync Server. Configuring Exchange as a DirSync Requestor. Summary.

21. Exchange Messaging Security with Key Management.
Server. Cryptography Basics. Installing Key Management Server. Configuring Additional Sites to Use Key Management Server. Key Management Server Administration. Security-Enabling Your Users. Completing Security-Enabling: The User's View. Key Recovery. Revoking Advanced Security from a User. Renewing User Certificates. Backing Up and Restoring. Planning and Scaling Considerations. Digital Signatures in Exchange Clients. Message Encryption in Exchange Clients. Sending Secure Mail Between Organizations. Restrictions on Encryption Software: U.S. Export Regulations. Defense Messaging System. Summary.

22. User Management with Exchange.
Types of Recipients. Planning for User Management. Creating Exchange Recipients. Mailbox Administration. Summary.

23. The Exchange Directory.
Directory Concepts. Concepts. Exchange and X.500. Exchange Directory and the NT Registry. The Exchange Directory Schema. Directory Import. Directory Export. Directory Security. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Address Book Views. Summary.

24. Public Folders.
What Is a Public Folder? What Do I Put in Public Folders? How Do Things Get into Public Folders? Public Folders as an E-Mail Recipient. Special Public Folders. Public Folder Favorites. Public Folder Instances/Replicas. Access to Public Folders in Another Exchange Site. Folder Assistant Rules. Moderated Public Folders. Location. Administration of Public Folders. Creation and Deletion of Public Folders. Public Folder Properties. Client Access Permissions. Expiration of Public Folder Contents. Public Folder Replication. Advanced Tab. Public Information Store Property Pages. Summary.

V. MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING.

25. Backup and Recovery.
Exchange Data. Backing Up the Exchange Server. Recovering from a Disaster. Summary.

26. Maintaining Exchange.
Maintenance Tools. The Exchange Directory Tree. Exchange Server Registry Entries. User Maintenance. Maintaining Public Folders. Maintaining the Exchange Databases. Maintaining the Message Transfer Agent (MTA). Maintaining the Connectors. Backing Up and Restoring the Exchange Environment. Restoring Data from a Backup. Backup and Restore Considerations. Summary.

27. Monitoring and Preventing Problems.
Windows NT Performance Monitor. Auto-Installed Performance Monitor Workspaces. Exchange-Specific Performance Monitor Counters. Microsoft Exchange Server Monitors. Information Store Maintenance. Summary.

28. Diagnosing the Cause of a Problem.
General Diagnostic Utilities. Message Tracking. Windows NT Administrative Tools. Summary.

VI. MORE THAN JUST E-MAIL.

29. Understanding and Using LoadSim.
What's New in LoadSim 5.5. What Was New in LoadSim 5.0. An Introduction to LoadSim. Getting Started with LoadSim. Customizing LoadSim Test Properties. Saving Your Work and LoadSim Settings. Initializing the Exchange Database. Running the Test. Obtaining the LoadSim Score: LSLOG. Techniques for Gathering Useful Data. Techniques for Analyzing Data. Summary.

30. The Exchange Electronic Forms Designer.
What Is EFD? What Are Exchange Forms? Exchange Forms in the Workplace. Administrator's Roles. Basic Design Process. A Quick Tour of EFD. A Sample Expense Report. The Approve Form. The Decline Form. Integrating the Expense Report, Approve, and Decline Forms. Testing the Integration of the Forms. Placing the Forms in the Organization Forms Library. Advanced Topics. Related Topics. Summary.

31. Workflow with Exchange: Keyfile's Keyflow.
Introduction to Workflow. Integration with Exchange and Windows NT. Installing and Configuring the Keyflow Server. Installing the Keyflow Client. Using the Keyflow Client. Sample Flow Templates. Starting a Flow from a Word 97 Macro. Summary.

32. Exchange Server as Part of the Active Server Platform.
What's So Cool About Exchange Applications on the Web? 9. The Basics: Understanding IIS, Active Server Pages, and. Exchange. Collaboration Data Objects. Designing an Application. Building an Application. Using Your Web Application. Summary.

VII. APPENDIXES.

A. Third-Party Add-On Products.
Action Technologies, Inc 9. Active Voice Corporation. ActivExchange. Alcom Corporation. ARDIS. AT&T Wireless Systems Inc., Wireless Data Division. Attachmate Corporation. BMC Software. Caere Corporation. Cheyenne Software. Seagate Software. Desktop Data, Inc 9. EDISYS Ltd 9. Eicon Technologies. Ericsson, Inc 9. Fenestrae. FileNet Corporation. Fulcrum Technologies, Inc 9. Icom Solution, Ltd 9. Individual, Inc 9. Inmarsat. Inso Corporation. IKON Office Solutions. JetForm Corporation. Keyfile Corporation. Legato Systems. The MESA Group, Inc 9. Mitel Corporation. Octel Communications Corporation. OMTOOL, Ltd 9. Optus Software, Inc 9. PC DOCS, Inc 9. Pivotal Software, Inc 9. Reach Software Corporation. Sax Software. Seagate Software, Network & Storage Management Group. SpectraFAX Corporation. Symantec Corporation, The Delrina Group. Telesis North Inc 9. Trax Software, Inc 9. Trend Micro, Inc 9. Verity, Inc 9. Wang Software. Worldtalk Corporation. Summary.

B. Command Reference.
ADMIN. EDBUTIL. ISINTEG. LoadSim. LSLOG. MTACHECK. NEWPROF. Client Command-Line Switches. NET Commands. Summary.

C. Glossary.
Index.

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