Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Resource Kit

Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Resource Kit

Other Format(BK&CD-ROM)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780735612662
Publisher: Microsoft Press
Publication date: 04/28/2001
Series: Resource Kit Series
Edition description: BK&CD-ROM
Pages: 1164
Product dimensions: 7.38(w) x 9.14(h) x 2.08(d)
Age Range: 13 Years

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Founded in 1975, Microsoft Corporation (Nasdaq 'MSFT') is the worldwide leader in software for personal and business computing. The company offers a wide range of products and services designed to empower people through great software—any time, any place, and on any device.

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Chapter 17 Data Warehouse Design Considerations

Data warehouses support business decisions by collecting, consolidating, and organizing data for reporting and analysis with tools such as online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining. Although data warehouses are built on relational database technology, the design of a data warehouse database differs substantially from the design of an online transaction processing system (OLTP) database.

The topics in this chapter address approaches and choices to be considered when designing and implementing a data warehouse. The chapter begins by contrasting data warehouse databases with OLTP databases and introducing OLAP and data mining, and then adds information about design issues to be considered when developing a data warehouse with Microsoft® SQL Server 2000.

Data Warehouses, OLTP, OLAP, and Data Mining

A relational database is designed for a specific purpose. Because the purpose of a data warehouse differs from that of an OLTP, the design characteristics of a relational database that supports a data warehouse differ from the design characteristics of an OLTP database.

Data warehouse databaseOLTP database
Designed for analysis of business measures by categories and attributesDesigned for real-time business operations
Optimized for bulk loads and large, complex, unpredictable queries that access many rows per tableOptimized for a common set of transactions, usually adding or retrieving a single row at a time per table
Loaded with consistent, valid data; requires no real time validationOptimized for validation of incoming data during transactions; uses validation data tables
Supports few concurrent users relative to OLTPSupports thousands of concurrent users

A Data Warehouse Supports OLTP

A data warehouse supports an OLTP system by providing a place for the OLTP database to offload data as it accumulates, and by providing services that would complicate and degrade OLTP operations if they were performed in the OLTP database.

Without a data warehouse to hold historical information, data is archived to static media such as magnetic tape, or allowed to accumulate in the OLTP database.

If data is simply archived for preservation, it is not available or organized for use by analysts and decision makers. If data is allowed to accumulate in the OLTP so it can be used for analysis, the OLTP database continues to grow in size and requires more indexes to service analytical and report queries. These queries access and process large portions of the continually growing historical data and add a substantial load to the database. The large indexes needed to support these queries also tax the OLTP transactions with additional index maintenance. These queries can also be complicated to develop due to the typically complex OLTP database schema.

A data warehouse offloads the historical data from the OLTP, allowing the OLTP to operate at peak transaction efficiency. High volume analytical and reporting queries are handled by the data warehouse and do not load the OLTP, which does not need additional indexes for their support. As data is moved to the data warehouse, it is also reorganized and consolidated so that analytical queries are simpler and more efficient.

OLAP Is a Data Warehouse Tool

Online analytical processing (OLAP) is a technology designed to provide superior performance for ad hoc business intelligence queries. OLAP is designed to operate efficiently with data organized in accordance with the common dimensional model used in data warehouses.

A data warehouse provides a multidimensional view of data in an intuitive model designed to match the types of queries posed by analysts and decision makers. OLAP organizes data warehouse data into multidimensional cubes based on this dimensional model, and then preprocesses these cubes to provide maximum performance for queries that summarize data in various ways. For example, a query that requests the total sales income and quantity sold for a range of products in a specific geographical region for a specific time period can typically be answered in a few seconds or less regardless of how many hundreds of millions of rows of data are stored in the data warehouse database.

OLAP is not designed to store large volumes of text or binary data, nor is it designed to support high volume update transactions. The inherent stability and consistency of historical data in a data warehouse enables OLAP to provide its remarkable performance in rapidly summarizing information for analytical queries.

In SQL Server 2000, Analysis Services provides tools for developing OLAP applications and a server specifically designed to service OLAP queries.

Data Mining is a Data Warehouse Tool

Data mining is a technology that applies sophisticated and complex algorithms to analyze data and expose interesting information for analysis by decision makers. Whereas OLAP organizes data in a model suited for exploration by analysts, data mining performs analysis on data and provides the results to decision makers. Thus, OLAP supports model-driven analysis and data mining supports data-driven analysis.

Data mining has traditionally operated only on raw data in the data warehouse database or, more commonly, text files of data extracted from the data warehouse database. In SQL Server 2000, Analysis Services provides data mining technology that can analyze data in OLAP cubes, as well as data in the relational data warehouse database. In addition, data mining results can be incorporated into OLAP cubes to further enhance model-driven analysis by providing an additional dimensional viewpoint into the OLAP model. For example, data mining can be used to analyze sales data against customer attributes and create a new cube dimension to assist the analyst in the discovery of the information embedded in the cube data.

For more information and details about data mining in SQL Server 2000, see Chapter 24, "Effective Strategies for Data Mining."

Designing a Data Warehouse: Prerequisites

Before embarking on the design of a data warehouse, it is imperative that the architectural goals of the data warehouse be clear and well understood. Because the purpose of a data warehouse is to serve users, it is also critical to understand the various types of users, their needs, and the characteristics of their interactions with the data warehouse.

Data Warehouse Architecture Goals

A data warehouse exists to serve its users — analysts and decision makers. A data warehouse must be designed to satisfy the following requirements:

  • Deliver a great user experience — user acceptance is the measure of success
  • Function without interfering with OLTP systems
  • Provide a central repository of consistent data
  • Answer complex queries quickly
  • Provide a variety of powerful analytical tools such as OLAP and data mining

Most successful data warehouses that meet these requirements have these common characteristics:

  • Are based on a dimensional model
  • Contain historical data
  • Include both detailed and summarized data
  • Consolidate disparate data from multiple sources while retaining consistency
  • Focus on a single subject such as sales, inventory, or finance

Data warehouses are often quite large. However, size is not an architectural goal — it is a characteristic driven by the amount of data needed to serve the users.

Data Warehouse Users

The success of a data warehouse is measured solely by its acceptance by users. Without users, historical data might as well be archived to magnetic tape and stored in the basement. Successful data warehouse design starts with understanding the users and their needs.

Data warehouse users can be divided into four categories: Statisticians, Knowledge Workers, Information Consumers, and Executives. Each type makes up a portion of the user population as illustrated in this diagram....


Click to view graphic

Statisticians: There are typically only a handful of statisticians and operations research types in any organization. Their work can contribute to closed loop systems that deeply influence the operations and profitability of the company.

Knowledge Workers: A relatively small number of analysts perform the bulk of new queries and analyses against the data warehouse. These are the users who get the Designer or Analyst versions of user access tools. They will figure out how to quantify a subject area. After a few iterations, their queries and reports typically get published for the benefit of the Information Consumers. Knowledge Workers are often deeply engaged with the data warehouse design and place the greatest demands on the ongoing data warehouse operations team for training and support.

Information Consumers: Most users of the data warehouse are Information Consumers; they will probably never compose a true ad hoc query. They use static or simple interactive reports that others have developed. They usually interact with the data warehouse only through the work product of others. This group includes a large number of people, and published reports are highly visible. Set up a great communication infrastructure for distributing information widely, and gather feedback from these users to improve the information sites over time.

Executives: Executives are a special case of the Information Consumers group.

How Users Query the Data Warehouse

Information for users can be extracted from the data warehouse relational database or from the output of analytical services such as OLAP or data mining. Direct queries to the data warehouse relational database should be limited to those that cannot be accomplished through existing tools, which are often more efficient than direct queries and impose less load on the relational database.

Reporting tools and custom applications often access the database directly. Statisticians frequently extract data for use by special analytical tools. Analysts may write complex queries to extract and compile specific information not readily accessible through existing tools. Information consumers do not interact directly with the relational database but may receive e-mail reports or access web pages that expose data from the relational database. Executives use standard reports or ask others to create specialized reports for them.

When using the Analysis Services tools in SQL Server 2000, Statisticians will often perform data mining, Analysts will write MDX queries against OLAP cubes and use data mining, and Information Consumers will use interactive reports designed by others....

Table of Contents



PART 1 INTRODUCING SQL SERVER 2000 AND THIS RESOURCE KIT Page 1
CHAPTER 1 Introducing the SQL Server 2000 Resource Kit Page 3
 Inside the Resource Kit Page 3
 Additional Sources of Information Page 10
  SQL Server 2000 Product Documentation Page 10
  SQL Server 2000 Internet Sites Page 11
 Conventions Used in This Resource Kit Page 11
 Resource Kit Support Policy Page 11
CHAPTER 2 New Features in SQL Server 2000 Page 13
 Relational Database Enhancements Page 13
 XML Integration of Relational Data Page 18
 Graphical Administration Enhancements Page 19
 Replication Enhancements Page 20
 Data Transformation Services Enhancements Page 24
 Analysis Services Enhancements Page 25
  Cube Enhancements Page 25
  Dimension Enhancements Page 28
  Data Mining Enhancements Page 29
  Security Enhancements Page 31
  Client Connectivity Enhancements in PivotTable Service Page 32
  Other Enhancements Page 32
 Meta Data Services Enhancements Page 34
  Meta Data Browser Enhancement Page 34
  XML Encoding Enhancements Page 34
  Repository Engine Programming Enhancements Page 35
  Repository Engine Modeling Enhancements Page 37
 English Query Enhancements Page 40
 Documentation Enhancements Page 42
PART 2 PLANNING Page 45
CHAPTER 3 Choosing an Edition of SQL Server 2000 Page 47
 Introduction Page 47
 SQL Server 2000 Server Editions Explained Page 48
  SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition Page 48
   Scalability Requirements Page 49
   Availability/Uptime Page 49
   Performance Page 49
   Advanced Analysis Page 50
  SQL Server 2000 Standard Edition Page 50
 SQL Server 2000 Editions for Special Uses Page 51
  SQL Server 2000 Personal Edition Page 51
  SQL Server 2000 Developer Edition Page 51
  SQL Server 2000 Evaluation Edition Page 52
  SQL Server 2000 Windows CE Edition Page 52
  SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine Page 53
 Obtaining SQL Server 2000 Page 54
 Conclusion Page 55
CHAPTER 4 Choosing How to License SQL Server Page 57
 Licensing Model Changes Page 57
 What is a Processor License? Page 58
 Upgrades Page 58
 Choosing a Licensing Model Page 59
  Mixed License Environments Page 60
  Licensing for a Failover Cluster Configuration Page 60
  Licensing for a Multi-Instance Configuration Page 60
   Licensing in Multi-Tier Environments (Including Multiplexing or Pooling) Page 61
  SQL Server 2000 Personal Edition Licensing Page 61
  SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine Licensing Page 61
 Switching Licenses Page 62
CHAPTER 5 Migrating Access 2000 Databases to SQL Server 2000 Page 63
 Migration Options Page 64
 Before You Migrate Page 64
 Migration Tools Page 65
  Upsizing Wizard Page 65
  SQL Server Tools Used in Migrations Page 66
   SQL Server Enterprise Manager Page 66
   Data Transformation Services (DTS) Page 66
   SQL Query Analyzer Page 67
   SQL Profiler Page 67
 Moving Data Page 67
 Migrating Access Queries Page 68
  Limitations in Upsizing Queries Page 69
  Migrating Access Queries into User–Defined Functions Page 71
  Migrating Access Queries into Stored Procedures and Views Page 71
   Converting Make-Table and Crosstab Queries Page 72
  Migrating Access Queries into Transact-SQL Scripts Page 73
 Additional Design Considerations for Queries Page 73
 Verifying SQL Server–Compliant Syntax Page 75
  Access and SQL Server Syntax Page 76
  Visual Basic Functions Page 78
  Access and SQL Server Data Types Page 79
 Migrating Your Applications Page 80
  Creating a Client/Server Application Page 80
   Converting Code Page 80
   Forms Page 81
  Optimizing the Application for the Client/Server Environment Page 81
  Optimizing Data Structure Page 82
CHAPTER 6 Migrating Sybase Databases to SQL Server 2000 Page 83
 Why Migrate to SQL Server 2000? Page 83
 Understanding the Migration Process Page 86
 Reviewing Architectural Differences Page 87
 Migrating Tables and Data Page 90
 Reviewing the Differences Between Sybase T-SQL and Transact-SQL Page 91
  Transaction Management Page 91
   ROLLBACK Triggers Page 91
   Chained Transactions Page 91
   Transaction Isolation Levels Page 92
   Cursors Page 93
   Cursor Error Checking Page 93
   Index Optimizer Hints Page 94
   Optimizer Hints for Locking Page 94
   Server Roles Page 94
   Raising Errors Page 96
   PRINT Page 96
   Partitioned Tables vs. Row Locking Page 96
  Join Syntax Page 98
  Subquery Behavior Page 98
  Grouping Results Page 99
  System Stored Procedures Page 99
   DUMP/LOAD Page 100
 Understanding Database Administration Differences Page 101
 Migration Checklist Page 103
CHAPTER 7 Migrating Oracle Databases to SQL Server 2000 Page 105
  Target Audience Page 105
 Overview Page 105
  SQL Language Extensions Page 106
  ODBC Page 106
  OLE DB Page 107
  Organization of This Chapter Page 107
 Architecture and Terminology Page 108
  Definition of Database Page 108
  Database System Catalogs Page 109
  Physical and Logical Storage Structures Page 110
  Striping Data Page 110
  Transaction Logs and Automatic Recovery Page 111
  Backing Up and Restoring Data Page 112
  Networks Page 113
  Database Security and Roles Page 114
   Database File Encryption Page 114
   Network Security Page 114
   Login Accounts Page 114
   Groups, Roles, and Permissions Page 115
   Database Users and the guest Account Page 115
   sysadmin Role Page 116
   db_owner Role Page 117
 Defining Database Objects Page 117
  Database Object Identifiers Page 119
  Qualifying Table Names Page 119
  Creating Tables Page 121
  Table and Index Storage Parameters Page 122
  Creating Tables With SELECT Statements Page 122
  Views Page 123
  Indexes Page 125
   Clustered Indexes Page 125
   Nonclustered Indexes Page 127
   Index Syntax and Naming Page 127
   Index Data Storage Parameters Page 128
   Ignoring Duplicate Keys Page 129
   Indexes on Computed Columns Page 129
  Using Temporary Tables Page 129
  Data Types Page 130
   Using Unicode Data Page 131
   User-Defined Data Types Page 132
   SQL Server timestamp Columns Page 132
  Object-Level Permissions Page 133
 Enforcing Data Integrity and Business Rules Page 134
  Entity Integrity Page 135
   Naming Constraints Page 135
   Primary Keys and Unique Columns Page 135
   Adding and Removing Constraints Page 136
   Generating Unique Values Page 138
  Domain Integrity Page 139
   DEFAULT and CHECK Constraints Page 139
   Nullability Page 140
  Referential Integrity Page 141
   Foreign Keys Page 142
  User-Defined Integrity Page 143
   Stored Procedures Page 143
   Delaying the Execution of a Stored Procedure Page 145
   Specifying Parameters in a Stored Procedure Page 146
   Triggers Page 146
 Transactions, Locking, and Concurrency Page 149
  Transactions Page 149
  Locking and Transaction Isolation Page 151
  Dynamic Locking Page 152
  Changing Default Locking Behavior Page 152
  SELECT…FOR UPDATE Page 154
  Explicitly Requesting Table-Level Locks Page 154
  Handling Deadlocks Page 155
  Remote Transactions Page 156
  Distributed Transactions Page 156
  Two-Phase Commit Processing Page 157
 SQL Language Support Page 157
  SELECT and Data Manipulation Statements Page 157
   SELECT Statements Page 158
   INSERT Statements Page 159
   UPDATE Statements Page 160
   DELETE Statements Page 162
   TRUNCATE TABLE Statement Page 163
   Manipulating Data in Identity and timestamp Columns Page 163
   Locking Requested Rows Page 164
   Row Aggregates and the Compute Clause Page 164
   Join Clauses Page 164
   Using SELECT Statements as Table Names Page 166
   Reading and Modifying BLOBs Page 166
  Functions Page 167
   Number/Mathematical Functions Page 167
   Character Functions Page 168
   Date Functions Page 169
   Conversion Functions Page 170
   Other Row-Level Functions Page 170
   Aggregate Functions Page 171
   Conditional Tests Page 171
   Converting Values to Different Data Types Page 172
   User-Defined Functions Page 174
  Comparison Operators Page 175
   Pattern Matches Page 176
   Using NULL in Comparisons Page 177
   String Concatenation Page 177
  Control-of-Flow Language Page 177
   Keywords Page 178
   Declaring Variables Page 179
   Assigning Variables Page 179
   Statement Blocks Page 180
   Conditional Processing Page 181
   Repeated Statement Execution (Looping) Page 181
   GOTO Statement Page 182
   PRINT Statement Page 182
   Returning from Stored Procedures Page 182
   Raising Program Errors Page 183
 Implementing Cursors Page 184
  Cursor Syntax Page 184
  Declaring a Cursor Page 185
  Opening a Cursor Page 186
  Fetching Data Page 186
  CURRENT OF Clause Page 187
  Closing a Cursor Page 187
  Cursor Example Page 187
 Tuning Transact–SQL Statements Page 188
 Using XML Page 190
 Using ODBC Page 190
  Recommended Conversion Strategy Page 191
  ODBC Architecture Page 191
  Forward-Only Cursors Page 192
  Server Cursors Page 193
  Scrollable Cursors Page 194
  Strategies for Using SQL Server Default Result Sets and Server Cursors Page 195
  Multiple Active Statements (hstmt) per Connection Page 196
  Data Type Mappings Page 196
  ODBC Extended SQL Page 198
  Outer Joins Page 198
  Date, Time, and Timestamp Values Page 199
  Calling Stored Procedures Page 199
  Native SQL Translation Page 200
  Manual Commit Mode Page 200
 Developing and Administering Database Replication Page 201
  ODBC, OLE/DB, and Replication Page 202
 Migrating Your Data and Applications Page 203
  Data Migration Using DTS Page 203
  Oracle Call Interface (OCI) Page 204
  Embedded SQL Page 205
  Developer 2000 and Third-Party Applications Page 208
  Internet Applications Page 209
PART 3 DATABASE ADMINISTRATION Page 211
CHAPTER 8 Managing Database Change Page 213
 Preparing for a Changing Environment Page 213
  Conflicting Goals Page 214
  Managing the Development Environment Page 215
   Development Database Process Page 215
   Control: Helping or Hindering? Page 216
   Duplication of the Production Database Page 219
   Security Page 219
   Using Command Line Scripts for Implementation Page 220
   Expecting the Unexpected During Implementation Page 224
  Managing the QA Environment Page 225
   Implementing in QA Page 225
   QA Administration Page 226
  Managing Production Implementations Page 227
   Owning the Change: Production vs. DBA Page 228
   When a Good Plan Comes Together Page 229
  Conclusion Page 231
   Further Reading Page 231
CHAPTER 9 Storage Engine Enhancements Page 233
  Storage Engine Enhancements Page 234
  Interacting with Data Page 237
   Reading Data More Effectively Page 238
   Concurrency Page 239
  Tables and Indexes Page 241
   In-Row Text Page 241
   New Data Types Page 242
   Indexes Page 242
  Logging and Recovery Page 244
   Recovery Models Page 246
  Administrative Improvements Page 249
   Dynamic Tuning Page 251
  Data Storage Components Page 252
   Files, Filegroups, and Disks Page 253
  Innovation and Evolution Page 254
CHAPTER 10 Implementing Security Page 255
 Introduction Page 255
 New Security Features Page 255
  Secure Setup Page 255
  C2 Security Evaluation Completed Page 256
  Kerberos and Delegation in Windows 2000 Environments Page 256
  Security Auditing Page 257
  Elimination of the SQLAgentCmdExec Proxy Account Page 258
  Server Role Enhancements Page 259
  Encryption Page 259
   Network Encryption Using SSL/TLS Page 259
   Encrypted File System Support on Windows 2000 Page 260
   Server-Based Encryption Enhanced Page 260
   DTS Package Encryption Page 261
  Password Protection Page 261
   Backups and Backup Media Sets Page 261
   SQL Server Enterprise Manager Page 261
   Service Account Changes Using SQL Server Enterprise Manager Page 261
  SUID Column Page 261
 Security Model Page 262
  Authentication Modes Page 263
  Using SIDs Internally Page 263
  Roles Page 264
   Public Role Page 264
   Predefined Roles Page 264
   User-Defined Roles Page 266
   Application Roles Page 266
  Securing Access to the Server Page 269
  Securing Access to the Database Page 273
   User-Defined Database Roles Page 274
   Permissions System Page 276
   Granting and Denying Permissions to Users and Roles Page 276
   Ownership Chains Page 279
 Implementation of Server-Level Security Page 280
   Use of SIDs Page 280
   Elimination of SUIDs Page 280
   Generation of GUIDs for Non-Trusted Users Page 281
   Renaming Windows User or Group Accounts Page 281
   sysxlogins System Table Page 281
 Implementation of Object-Level Security Page 284
  How Permissions Are Checked Page 284
   Cost of Changing Permissions Page 285
   Changes to Windows User or Group Account Names Page 285
   sysprocedures System Table Removed Page 286
   WITH GRANT OPTION Page 286
   sysusers System Table Page 286
   sysmembers System Table Page 287
   syspermissions System Table Page 287
   sysprotects System Table Page 288
  Named Pipes and Multiprotocol Permissions Page 288
 Upgrading from SQL Server 7.0 Page 289
 Upgrading from SQL Server 6.5 Page 289
  Upgrade Process Page 289
   Analyzing the Upgrade Output Page 290
   Preparing the SQL Server 6.5 Security Environment Page 291
 Setting Up a Secure SQL Server 2000 Installation Page 292
  Service Accounts Page 293
  File System Page 295
  Registry Page 296
  Auditing Page 296
  Profiling for Auditing Page 297
  Backup and Restore Page 298
   Security of Backup Files and Media Page 298
   Restoring to Another Server Page 298
   Attaching and Detaching Database Files Page 300
  General Windows Security Configurations Page 300
   Additional Resources Page 301
CHAPTER 11 Using BLOBs Page 303
 Designing BLOBs Page 304
  BLOB Storage in SQL Server Page 304
  Learning from the TerraServer Design and Implementation Page 312
  BLOBs in Special Operations Page 315
 Implementing BLOBs Page 316
  BLOBs on the Server Page 318
  BLOBs on the Client Page 325
 Working with BLOBs in SQL Server Page 336
PART 4 AVAILABILITY Page 337
CHAPTER 12 Failover Clustering Page 339
 Enhancements to Failover Clustering Page 339
 Windows Clustering Page 340
  Microsoft Cluster Service Components Page 341
   Hardware Page 341
   Operating System Page 342
   Virtual Server Page 343
   SQL Server 2000 Page 343
   Components Page 343
   Instances of SQL Server Page 344
   How SQL Server 2000 Failover Clustering Works Page 346
 Configuring SQL Server 2000 Failover Cluster Servers Page 347
  Software Requirements Page 347
   Memory Page 348
   Networking Page 351
   Location Page 352
   Hardware Compatibility List Page 352
  Configuration Worksheets Page 352
 Implementing SQL Server 2000 Failover Clustering Page 353
  Prerequisites Page 354
  Installation Order Page 355
  Creating the MS DTC Resources (Windows NT 4.0, Enterprise Edition Only) Page 356
  Best Practices Page 357
   Using More IP Addresses Page 357
   Configuring Node Failover Preferences Page 358
   Memory Configuration Page 359
   Using More Than Two Nodes Page 364
   Failover/Failback Strategies Page 366
 Maintaining a SQL Server 2000 Failover Cluster Page 367
  Backing Up and Restoring Page 367
   Backing Up to Disk Page 368
   Backing Up to Tape Page 368
   Snapshot Backups Page 368
   Backing Up an Entire Clustered System Page 368
  Ensuring a Virtual Server Will Not Fail Due to Other Service Failures Page 369
  Adding, Changing, or Updating a TCP/IP Address Page 369
  Adding or Removing a Cluster Node from the Virtual Server Definition Page 370
 Troubleshooting SQL Server 2000 Failover Clusters Page 371
 Finding More Information Page 372
CHAPTER 13 Log Shipping Page 373
 How Log Shipping Works Page 373
  Components Page 373
   Database Tables Page 374
   Stored Procedures Page 375
   log_shipping_monitor_probe User Page 376
  Log Shipping Process Page 376
   Bringing a Secondary Server Online as a Primary Page 378
 Configuring Log Shipping Page 378
  Keeping the Data in Sync Page 378
  Servers Page 379
   Location Page 379
   Connectivity Page 380
  Keeping Old Transaction Log Files Page 380
  Thresholds Page 380
  Installation Considerations Page 381
  Preparation Worksheet Page 382
 Log Shipping Tips and Best Practices Page 384
  Secondary Server Capacity Page 384
  Generating Database Backups from the Secondary Page 385
  Keeping Logins in Sync Page 385
  Monitoring Log Shipping Page 385
  Modifying or Removing Log Shipping Page 385
  Log Shipping Interoperability Between SQL Server 7.0 and SQL Server 2000 Page 386
  Using the Log Shipped Database to Check the Health of the Production Database Page 386
  Using the Log Shipped Database for Reporting Page 387
  Combining Log Shipping and Snapshot Backups Page 387
  Terminating User Connections in the Secondary Database Page 387
  Warm Standby Role Change Page 388
  Failback to Primary Page 388
   Network Load Balancing and Log Shipping Page 389
  Log Shipping and Replication Page 389
  Log Shipping and Application Code Page 390
  Log Shipping and Failover Clustering Page 390
  Monitor Server Page 390
  Using Full-Text Search with a Log Shipped Database Page 390
 Troubleshooting Page 391
CHAPTER 14 Data Center Availability: Facilities, Staffing, and Operations Page 393
 Data Centers Page 393
 Facility and Equipment Requirements Page 394
  The Data Center Facility Page 394
  Data Center Hardware Page 396
  Data Communication Within the Data Center Page 397
 Staffing Recommendations Page 397
 Operational Guidelines Page 402
  General Operations Page 402
   Quality Assurance Page 402
   Change Control Page 402
   Emergency Preparedness Page 403
  SQL Server Operations Page 404
   Security Page 404
   Monitoring Page 405
   Backup and Recovery Page 408
   Maintenance Page 408
 Application Service Providers Page 409
 Summary Page 410
CHAPTER 15 High Availability Options Page 413
 The Importance of People, Policies, and Processes Page 413
  Are There Any 100 Percent Solutions? Page 414
  Meeting High Uptime Page 414
  Uptime Solutions and Risk Management Page 414
  People: The Best Solution Page 415
   Roles of DBAs? Page 415
  The Essentials of an Operations Plan Page 416
  Planning Redundancy Page 416
  Segmenting Your Solutions Page 417
  Manual Procedures Page 417
  Increased Corporate Awareness: The Importance of Communication Page 417
  High Availability and Mobile and Disconnected Devices Page 418
 The Technical Side of High Availability Page 418
  Hardware Alternatives Page 418
   Disk Drives Page 419
   RAID Page 419
   SANS Page 420
   Disk Configuration Page 420
   RAID Solutions Page 420
  Software Alternatives Page 422
   Windows Clustering and SQL Server 2000 Failover Clustering Page 422
   Cluster Option 1 – Shared Disk Backup Page 425
   Cluster Option 2 – Snapshot Backup Page 425
   Option 3 – Failover Clustering Page 426
   Detail Configuration Showing Database Placement Page 427
   Network Load Balancing Page 428
  SQL Server Alternatives Page 429
   Database Maintenance and Availability Page 430
   Backup and Restore Page 430
   Two-Phase Commit Page 431
   Replication Page 432
   Replication: Immediate Updating with Queued Updating as a Failover Page 434
   Log Shipping Page 435
   Message Queuing Page 436
  Combining SQL Server Solutions Page 437
   Server Clusters, Hardware Mirroring, and Replication Page 438
   Log Shipping with Network Load Balancing Page 438
 Conclusion Page 441
CHAPTER 16 Five Nines: The Ultimate in High Availability Page 443
 Determine Your Desired Level of Nines Page 443
 Achieving High Availability with SQL Server 2000 Page 444
  Application Design Page 444
  Underlying Hardware and Software Page 446
   Choosing the Right High Availability Technology for Your Environment Page 446
   Designing Hardware for High Availability Page 451
 Creating a Disaster Recovery Plan Page 457
  Preparing Your Environment Page 457
  The Failover Plan Page 460
  The Failback Plan Page 460
  Personnel Page 461
  Creating a Run Book Page 461
  Testing the Plan Page 463
 Diagnosing a Failure Page 463
 High Availability Scenarios Page 464
  Corporate Web Site with Dynamic Content, no E–Commerce Page 464
  E-Commerce Web Site Page 466
  Partitioned Database Page 469
  Small Company Page 470
 Conclusion Page 471
PART 5 DATA WAREHOUSING Page 473
CHAPTER 17 Data Warehouse Design Considerations Page 475
 Data Warehouses, OLTP, OLAP, and Data Mining Page 475
   A Data Warehouse Supports OLTP Page 476
   OLAP Is a Data Warehouse Tool Page 476
   Data Mining is a Data Warehouse Tool Page 477
 Designing a Data Warehouse: Prerequisites Page 477
   Data Warehouse Architecture Goals Page 477
   Data Warehouse Users Page 478
   How Users Query the Data Warehouse Page 479
 Developing a Data Warehouse: Details Page 479
  Identify and Gather Requirements Page 480
  Design the Dimensional Model Page 480
   Dimensional Model Schemas Page 482
   Dimension Tables Page 485
   Fact Tables Page 494
  Develop the Architecture Page 497
  Design the Relational Database and OLAP Cubes Page 498
  Develop the Operational Data Store Page 500
  Develop the Data Maintenance Applications Page 500
  Develop Analysis Applications Page 501
  Test and Deploy the System Page 501
 Conclusion Page 501
CHAPTER 18 Using Partitions in a SQL Server 2000 Data Warehouse Page 503
 Using Partitions in a SQL Server 2000 Relational Data Warehouse Page 504
  Advantages of Partitions Page 504
   Data Pruning Page 504
   Load Speed Page 505
   Maintainability Page 505
   Query Speed Page 505
  Disadvantages of Partitions Page 505
   Complexity Page 505
   Query Design Constraints Page 505
  Design Considerations Page 506
   Overview of Partition Design Page 506
   Sample Syntax Page 508
   Apply Conditions Directly to the Fact Table Page 509
   Choice of Partition Key(s) Page 510
   Naming Conventions Page 511
   Partitioning for Downstream Cubes Page 511
  Managing the Partitioned Fact Table Page 511
   Meta Data Page 512
   Creating New Partitions Page 512
   Populating the Partitions Page 513
   Defining the UNION ALL View Page 513
   Merging Partitions Page 513
 Using Partitions in SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services Page 514
  Advantages of Partitions Page 514
   Query Performance Page 514
   Pruning Old Data Page 515
   Maintenance Page 515
   Load Performance Page 515
  Disadvantages of Partitions Page 516
   Complexity Page 516
   Meta Data Operations Page 516
  Design Considerations Page 516
   Overview of Partitions Page 516
   Slices and Filters Page 517
   Advanced Slices and Filters Page 518
   Aligning Partitions Page 519
   Storage Modes and Aggregation Plans Page 519
  Managing the Partitioned Cube Page 519
   Create New Partitions Page 520
   Data Integrity Page 521
   Processing Partitions Page 521
   Merging Partitions Page 522
   Rolling Off Old Partitions Page 523
 Conclusions Page 523
 For More Information Page 524
 VBScript Code Example for Cloning a Partition Page 524
CHAPTER 19 Data Extraction, Transformation, and Loading Techniques Page 529
 Introduction Page 529
 ETL Functional Elements Page 530
  Extraction Page 530
  Transformation Page 531
  Loading Page 532
  Meta Data Page 532
 ETL Design Considerations Page 533
 ETL Architectures Page 534
  Homogenous Architecture Page 534
  Heterogeneous Architecture Page 535
 ETL Development Page 535
  Identify and Map Data Page 536
   Identify Source Data Page 536
   Identify Target Data Page 536
   Map Source Data to Target Data Page 536
  Develop Functional Elements Page 537
   Extraction Page 537
   Transformation Page 537
   Loading Page 538
   Meta Data Logging Page 538
   Common Tasks Page 538
 SQL Server 2000 ETL Components Page 539
 The ETL Staging Database Page 539
  Server Configuration Page 541
   RAID Page 541
   Server Configuration Options (sp_configure) Page 541
  Database Configuration Page 541
   Data File Growth Page 541
   Database Configuration Options Page 542
 Managing Surrogate Keys Page 543
 ETL Code Examples Page 543
  Tables for Code Examples Page 544
   Define Example Tables Page 545
   Populate Example Tables Page 546
  Inserting New Dimension Records Page 547
  Managing Slowly Changing Dimensions Page 548
   Type 1: Overwrite the Dimension Record Page 549
   Type 2: Add a New Dimension Record Page 550
  Managing the Fact Table Page 551
  Advanced Techniques Page 558
  Meta Data Logging Page 562
   Job Audit Page 562
   Step Audit Page 564
   Error Tracking Page 566
   Code Sample: Job Audit Page 566
   Code Sample: Step Audit Page 569
   Code Sample: Error Tracking Page 571
 Conclusion Page 573
CHAPTER 20 RDBMS Performance Tuning Guide for Data Warehousing Page 575
 Introduction Page 575
 Basic Principles of Performance Tuning Page 576
  Managing Performance Page 576
  Take Advantage of SQL Server Performance Tools Page 577
  Configuration Options That Impact Performance Page 577
   max async IO Page 577
   Database Recovery Models Page 578
   Multi-Instance Considerations Page 579
   Extended Memory Support Page 580
   Windows 2000 Usage Considerations Page 580
   SQL Server 2000 Usage Considerations Page 581
 Optimizing Disk I/O Performance Page 584
  Optimizing Transfer Rates Page 584
  RAID Page 586
 Partitioning for Performance Page 595
  Objects For Partitioning Consideration Page 597
  Parallel Data Retrieval Page 600
  Optimizing Data Loads Page 602
   Choosing an Appropriate Database Recovery Model Page 602
   Using bcp, BULK INSERT, or the Bulk Copy APIs Page 603
   Controlling the Locking Behavior Page 604
   Loading Data in Parallel Page 604
   Loading Pre-Sorted Data Page 607
   Impact of FILLFACTOR and PAD_INDEX on Data Loads Page 607
   General Guidelines for Initial Data Loads Page 607
   General Guidelines for Incremental Data Loads Page 608
  Indexes and Index Maintenance Page 608
   Types of Indexes in SQL Server Page 608
   How Indexes Work Page 609
   Index Intersection Page 610
   Index Architecture In SQL Server Page 611
   Clustered Indexes Page 611
   Nonclustered Indexes Page 613
   Unique Indexes Page 615
   Indexes on Computed Columns Page 615
   Indexed Views Page 617
   Covering Indexes Page 619
   Index Selection Page 619
   Index Creation and Parallel Operations Page 620
   Index Maintenance Page 621
  SQL Server Tools for Analysis and Tuning Page 625
   Sample Data and Workload Page 625
   SQL Profiler Page 626
   SQL Query Analyzer Page 630
  System Monitoring Page 636
   Key Performance Counters to Watch Page 639
  Understanding SQL Server Internals Page 644
   Worker Threads Page 644
   Lazy Writer Page 645
   Checkpoint Page 645
   Log Manager Page 646
   Read-Ahead Management Page 647
  Miscellaneous Performance Topics Page 648
   Database Design Using Star and Snowflake Schemas Page 648
   Use Equality Operators in Transact-SQL Queries Page 648
   Reduce Rowset Size and Communications Overhead Page 649
   Reusing Execution Plans Page 650
   Maintaining Statistics on Columns Page 652
 Finding More Information Page 653
CHAPTER 21 Monitoring the DTS Multiphase Data Pump in Visual Basic Page 655
  Exposing the Multiphase Data Pump Page 655
   Programming Interfaces Page 655
   Package Execution Context Page 656
   Troubleshooting the Data Pump Page 656
  Multiphase Data Pump Review Page 656
   Basic Multiphase Data Pump Process Page 657
   Transformation Status Page 657
   Multiphase Data Pump Phases Page 657
   Properties that Impact Phases Page 661
  Sample Monitoring Solution Page 661
   Solution Architecture Page 662
   COM+ Event Class: MonitorDTSEvents.DLL Page 662
   Publisher Application: MonitorDTS.DLL Page 664
   Subscriber Application: MonitorDTSWatch.EXE Page 666
   DTS Package: MonitorDTS Sample.DTS Page 668
   Executing the Solution Page 672
PART 6 ANALYSIS SERVICES Page 673
CHAPTER 22 Cubes in the Real World Page 675
 Design Fundamentals Page 675
   Data Explosion Page 675
   Sparsity Page 676
 Designing Dimensions Page 678
  Initial Design Questions Page 679
   Star Schema or Snowflake Schema? Page 679
   Shared or Private? Page 681
  Dimension Varieties Page 683
   Changing Dimensions Page 683
   Virtual Dimensions Page 684
   Parent-Child Dimensions Page 685
  Dimension Characteristics Page 686
   Dimension Hierarchies Page 686
   Levels and Members Page 689
   Member Properties Page 690
   Real-time OLAP Page 691
   Dimension Security Page 692
  Dimension Storage and Processing Page 692
   Dimension Storage Page 692
   Dimension Processing Page 693
 Designing Cubes Page 694
  Cube Varieties Page 695
   Regular Cubes Page 695
   Virtual Cubes Page 696
   Linked Cubes Page 696
   Distributed Partitioned Cubes Page 697
   Real-Time Cubes Page 697
   Offline Cubes Page 698
   Caching and Cubes Page 698
  Cube Characteristics Page 699
   Partitions Page 699
   Aggregations Page 701
   Measures Page 702
   Calculated Cells Page 704
   Actions Page 705
   Named Sets Page 706
   Cell Security Page 706
  Cube Storage and Processing Page 707
   Cube Storage Page 707
   Cube Processing Page 707
CHAPTER 23 Business Case Solutions Using MDX Page 711
 General Questions Page 712
  How Can I Retrieve Results from Different Cubes? Page 712
  How Can I Perform Basic Basket Analysis? Page 713
  How Can I Perform Complex String Comparisons? Page 715
  How Can I Show Percentages as Measures? Page 716
  How Can I Show Cumulative Sums as Measures? Page 717
  How Can I Implement a Logical AND or OR Condition in a WHERE Clause? Page 719
  How Can I Use Custom Member Properties in MDX? Page 721
 Navigation Questions Page 722
  How Can I Drill Down More Than One Level Deep, or Skip Levels When Drilling Down? Page 723
  How Do I Get the Topmost Members of a Level Broken Out by an Ancestor Level? Page 724
 Manipulation Questions Page 727
  How Can I Rank or Reorder Members? Page 727
  How Can I Use Different Calculations for Different Levels in a Dimension? Page 728
  How Can I Use Different Calculations for Different Dimensions? Page 731
 Date and Time Questions Page 733
  How Can I Use Date Ranges in MDX? Page 733
  How Can I Use Rolling Date Ranges in MDX? Page 734
  How Can I Use Different Calculations for Different Time Periods? Page 736
  How Can I Compare Time Periods in MDX? Page 738
CHAPTER 24 Effective Strategies for Data Mining Page 741
 Introduction Page 741
 The Data Mining Process Page 746
  Data Selection Page 747
  Data Cleaning Page 750
  Data Enrichment Page 751
  Data Transformation Page 752
  Training Case Set Preparation Page 752
  Data Mining Model Construction Page 754
   Model-Driven and Data-Driven Data Mining Page 755
   Data Mining Algorithm Provider Selection Page 757
   Creating Data Mining Models Page 761
   Training Data Mining Models Page 762
  Data Mining Model Evaluation Page 764
   Visualizing Data Mining Models Page 768
  Data Mining Model Feedback Page 770
   Predicting with Data Mining Models Page 770
CHAPTER 25 Getting Data to the Client Page 777
 Developing Analysis Services Client Applications Page 777
  Working with Data Page 778
   Data and PivotTable Service Page 778
   Data and ActiveX Data Objects Page 781
   Data and ActiveX Data Objects (Multidimensional) Page 783
  Working with Meta Data Page 785
   Meta Data and Decision Support Objects Page 785
   Meta Data and PivotTable Service Page 789
   Meta Data and OLE DB Page 789
   Meta Data and ActiveX Data Objects Page 790
   Meta Data and ActiveX Data Objects (Multidimensional) Page 792
 Using the Internet with Analysis Services Page 794
CHAPTER 26 Performance Tuning Analysis Services Page 797
 Introduction Page 797
  Why Use OLAP? Page 797
 Architecture Page 799
  Overview Page 799
  Memory Management Page 800
   Server Memory Management Page 800
   Client Cache Management Page 805
  Thread Management Page 806
   Server Thread Management Page 806
   Client Thread Management Page 809
  Processing Interaction Page 810
  Querying Interaction Page 812
 Improving Overall Performance Page 813
  Hardware Configuration Page 813
   Processors Page 813
   Memory Page 813
   Disk Storage Page 814
  Dimension and Cube Design Page 815
  Storage Mode Selection Page 815
  Aggregation Design Page 817
  Schema Optimization Page 818
  Partition Strategy Page 818
 Improving Processing Performance Page 820
  Processing Options Page 820
  Memory Requirements Page 821
  Storage Requirements Page 822
 Improving Querying Performance Page 822
  Memory Requirements Page 822
  Usage Analysis and Aggregation Design Page 823
 Evaluating Performance Page 825
  Analysis Services Performance Counters Page 825
   Analysis Server:Agg Cache Page 826
   Analysis Server:Connection Page 827
   Analysis Server:Last Query Page 827
   Analysis Server:Locks Page 828
   Analysis Server:Proc Page 829
   Analysis Server:Proc Aggs Page 830
   Analysis Server:Proc Indexes Page 831
   Analysis Server:Query Page 831
   Analysis Server:Query Dims Page 832
   Analysis Server:Startup Page 833
  System Performance Counters Page 833
   Memory Page 833
   Network Interface Page 834
   PhysicalDisk Page 834
   Process Page 835
   Processor Page 836
   System Page 836
PART 7 DIGITAL DASHBOARDS Page 837
CHAPTER 27 Creating an Interactive Digital Dashboard Page 839
 Introduction Page 839
  About the Code Samples Page 840
 Required Software Page 841
  SQL Server 2000 Page 841
  Windows 2000 Page 842
  Internet Explorer 5.X Page 842
  Digital Dashboard Resource Kit (DDRK) Page 842
  Downloading and Installing the DDRK and SQL Server Sample Digital Dashboard Page 842
 Setting Up Page 843
  Download the Code Samples Page 843
  Create Physical and Virtual Directories for Your HTM and HTC Files Page 843
  Create Physical and Virtual Directories for Your XML and XSL Files Page 844
  Copy and Edit the HTM and HTC Files Page 844
 Building the Dashboard Page 845
  Defining the Dashboard Page 845
  Defining the Customer List Web Part Page 846
  Defining the Order Chart Web Part Page 846
  Testing the Dashboard Page 847
  Reviewing the Code Samples Page 847
   Customerlist.htm Page 848
   Customerlist.xml Page 849
   Customerlist.xsl Page 849
   Customerlist.htc Page 850
   Orderchart.htm Page 850
   Orderchart.xsl Page 851
CHAPTER 28 A Digital Dashboard Browser for Analysis Services Meta Data Page 853
 Introduction Page 853
 Requirements Page 854
  Windows 2000 Server Page 854
  SQL Server 2000 with Analysis Services Page 854
  Digital Dashboard Resource Kit (DDRK) 2.01 Page 854
  Internet Explorer 5.5 Page 855
   DDSC Versions Page 855
 Setup Page 855
  Copy Files Page 855
  Set Up an IIS Virtual Directory Page 856
  Grant Permissions Page 856
 Creating the Digital Dashboard Page 857
  Set Up the Dashboard Page 857
  Create the ServerConnect Web Part Page 857
  Create the DBSelect Web Part Page 858
  Create the CollSelect Web Part Page 858
  Create the MemberSelect Web Part Page 859
  Create the MetaData Web Part Page 859
  Test the Dashboard Page 860
 Using the Dashboard Page 860
 Sample Files Page 860
  Text Files (Embedded Content) Page 861
  ASP Files Page 862
   Serverconnect.asp Page 862
   Dbselect.asp Page 863
   Collselect.asp Page 863
   Memberselect.asp Page 863
   Metadata.asp Page 863
 Known Issues Page 864
  Unable to Connect to the Registry Page 864
  Sizing of Web Parts Page 865
PART 8 REPLICATION Page 867
CHAPTER 29 Common Questions in Replication Page 869
 Types of Replication and Replication Options Page 870
  What Type of Replication Should I Use? Page 870
  What Is the Difference Between Merge Replication and Updatable Subscriptions? Page 871
  Should I Use SQL Server Queues or Microsoft Message Queuing Services When Using Transactional Replication and Queued Updating? Page 871
 Implementing Replication Page 872
  What Is the Difference Between a Local Distributor and a Remote Distributor? Page 872
  What Type of Subscription Should I Use: Push or Pull? Page 873
  If I am Using Pull Subscriptions, When Should I Specify Them as Anonymous? Page 873
  What are the Advantages of Scripting Replication? Page 874
  Should I Apply the Snapshot Manually or Apply It Automatically? Page 874
  Can I Replicate Data Between SQL Server and Heterogeneous Databases? Page 875
  If I Am Using SQL Server 6.5 or SQL Server 7.0 Subscribers, Can I Use the New Features in SQL Server 2000? Page 876
  Can Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine Participate in Replication? Page 876
  When Upgrading to SQL Server 2000, Do I Need to Upgrade All Servers in Replication at the Same Time? Page 877
 Replication and Warm Standby Server Recovery Options Page 877
  Should I Use Replication, Log Shipping, or Clustering as a Failover Solution? Page 878
  Does Replication Work on a Cluster? Page 878
CHAPTER 30 Creating Merge Replication Custom Conflict Resolvers Using Visual Basic Page 879
 Using the Microsoft SQL Replication Conflict Resolver Library Page 880
  Adding the Microsoft SQL Replication Conflict Resolver Library to Visual Basic Page 881
  IVBCustomResolver Interface Page 881
   GetHandledStates Method Page 881
   Reconcile Method Page 882
  IReplRowChange and IConnectionInfo Interfaces Page 883
   IReplRowChange Interface and Methods Page 883
   IConnectionInfo Interface and Methods Page 894
  Constants Page 903
 Registering a Custom Conflict Resolver Page 913
 Merge Replication Custom Conflict Resolver Samples Page 914
PART 9 WEB PROGRAMMING Page 919
CHAPTER 31 Exposing SQL Server Data to the Web with XML Page 921
 Generating XML with the SELECT Statement Page 921
 Generating XML over the Internet Page 922
  Retrieving XML Formatted Data from SQL Server Page 923
   XML Templates Page 927
CHAPTER 32 English Query Best Practices Page 935
 An Overview of English Query Page 935
  A Simple Example Page 936
 Before You Begin Page 937
 Starting a Basic Model Page 937
  Edit Entity Properties Page 939
  Formulate and Test Typical Questions Page 939
  Use the Suggestion Wizard Page 940
  Add Help Text Page 941
 Expanding a Model Page 941
  Create Good Entity Relationships Page 942
  First Create Broad Relationships, and Then Work on Specific Questions Page 943
  Retest Questions Page 943
  For "Free-Form" Text Searches, Enable Full-Text Search Page 944
  For Data Analysis Questions, Create an OLAP Model Page 944
 Deploying an English Query Solution Page 945
  Use the Sample Applications Page 945
  Provide Sample Questions for Users Page 946
  Provide Question Builder Page 946
 Maintaining and Improving a Model Page 948
  Keep the Model Up-To-Date Page 948
  Use Logs to Improve Results Page 948
 Troubleshooting Page 949
PART 10 DESIGNING FOR PEFORMANCE AND SCALABILITY Page 951
CHAPTER 33 The Data Tier: An Approach to Database Optimization Page 953
 A New Approach Page 953
 Optimization Cycle Page 954
 Evaluating the Situation Page 956
  Performance Monitoring Tools Page 957
   SQL Profiler Page 957
   System Stored Procedures Page 958
   System Monitor Page 959
  Staging a Test Page 960
 Monitoring and Optimizing Page 961
  Monitoring a System Page 962
   Address Operating System and SQL Server Errors Page 962
   Monitor to Identify Areas for Improvement Page 963
   Monitoring SQL Server in General Page 965
  Analyzing the Results: Database and Code Level Page 966
   Blocking Based on Database Design Page 967
   Slowness Due to Indexing Schema Page 969
   Data Storage Component Issues Page 971
   Other Issues for Optimization Page 973
   Managing the Changes Page 974
  Optimizing the Data Components Page 974
  Optimizing the Code Components Page 975
  Optimizing the Storage Components Page 977
   Database File Placement Page 977
   Log File Placement Page 978
   tempdb File Placement Page 979
   Other File Placement Page 979
  Optimizing the Server Configuration Page 979
 Exploiting the Hardware Page 980
  Maximizing Performance Page 980
  Capacity Planning Page 981
   General Hardware Recommendations Page 982
   Memory Planning Page 982
   Disk Planning Page 983
  Working with Existing Hardware Page 983
   Storage Subsystem Design Page 984
  Sample Server Configurations Page 988
   Small Entry-Level System Layout Page 988
   OLTP System Server Layout Page 990
   DSS System Server Layout Page 991
   Multi-Instance N+1 Failover Cluster Configuration: SQL Server 2000 on Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Page 992
 Conclusion Page 993
CHAPTER 34 Identifying Common Administrative Issues Page 995
 Installing the Stored Procedures Page 996
 Check Server Configuration (sp_rk_audit_configure) Page 999
  Running sp_rk_audit_configure Page 1000
  How sp_rk_audit_configure Works Page 1001
  Modifying sp_rk_audit_configure Page 1002
 Check Database Configuration (sp_rk_audit_dboptions) Page 1005
  Running sp_rk_audit_dboptions Page 1006
  How sp_rk_audit_dboptions Works Page 1008
  Modifying sp_rk_audit_dboptions_check_1_db to Look at Different Values Page 1012
 Application Troubleshooting Page 1013
  Running sp_rk_blocker_blockee Page 1014
  How sp_rk_blocker_blockee Works Page 1016
  Modifying sp_rk_blocker_blockee Page 1016
CHAPTER 35 Using Visual Basic to Remotely Manage SQL Server 2000 Page 1017
 Inside the SQL Junior Administrator Application Page 1018
  User Interface Page 1019
  Visual Basic Code Page 1024
 Summary Page 1047
CHAPTER 36 Using Views with a View on Performance Page 1049
 What Is an Indexed View? Page 1049
  Performance Gains from Indexed Views Page 1050
 Getting the Most from Indexed Views Page 1051
  How the Query Optimizer Uses Indexed Views Page 1052
   Optimizer Considerations Page 1052
 Designing Indexed Views Page 1053
  Guidelines for Designing Indexed Views Page 1055
  Using the Index Tuning Wizard Page 1056
  Maintaining Indexed Views Page 1056
   Maintenance Cost Considerations Page 1057
 Creating Indexed Views Page 1057
  Using SET Options to Obtain Consistent Results Page 1058
  Using Deterministic Functions Page 1059
  Additional Requirements for Indexed Views Page 1060
 Indexed View Examples Page 1062
CHAPTER 37 Extending Triggers with INSTEAD OF Page 1069
 What Are INSTEAD OF Triggers? Page 1069
 Customizing Error Messages with INSTEAD OF Triggers Page 1070
 Creating Updatable Views with INSTEAD OF Triggers Page 1073
  Handling NOT NULL Values and Computed Columns in Updatable Views with INSTEAD OF Triggers Page 1075
 INSTEAD OF Triggers on Partitioned Views Page 1078
 Guidelines for Designing INSTEAD OF Triggers Page 1078
 Performance Guidelines for INSTEAD OF Triggers Page 1080
CHAPTER 38 Scaling Out on SQL Server Page 1083
 Readiness Checklists Page 1084
  Are You Ready to Scale Out on SQL Server? Page 1084
  Design Considerations Page 1085
  Understanding the Federation Page 1087
 Data Partitioning Components Page 1088
  How Partitioned Views Work Page 1091
  Creating Partitioned Views Page 1092
  Partitioned Query Plans Page 1093
  Data-Dependent Routing Page 1095
  Other Options Page 1096
   Replication Page 1096
   Adding a Unique Column Page 1097
   INSTEAD OF Trigger Page 1097
 Administration Considerations Page 1097
  Partition Maintenance Page 1097
  Disaster Recovery and Partitioning Page 1098
   Backing Up and Restoring Partitioned Databases Page 1098
  High Availability Page 1099
PART 11 CD-ROM CONTENT Page 1101
CHAPTER 39 Tools, Samples, eBooks, and More Page 1103
 Electronic Version of the Resource Kit Book Page 1103
 eBooks Page 1103
 System Table Map Page 1104
 Tools and Samples Page 1106
About the Authors Page 1109
INDEX Page 1111

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