ISBN-10:
0387086226
ISBN-13:
9780387086224
Pub. Date:
08/28/1978
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Microtubules

Microtubules

by P. Dustin

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387086224
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date: 08/28/1978
Pages: 452
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

From the Introduction to the First Edition.- Acknowledgments.- 1 Historical Background.- 1.1 Micro tubules (MT).- 1.1.1 Definition.- 1.1.2 Early Observations.- 1.1.3 First Ultrastructural Observations.- 1.2 Colchicine: A Specific MT Poison.- 1.2.1 The Cellular Action of Colchicine.- 1.2.2 Colchicine as a Tool.- 1.2.3 Radioactive Colchicine and the Discovery of Tubulin.- 1.3 Other MT Poisons.- 1.3.1 The Catharanthus (Vinca) Alkaloids.- 1.3.2 Other Substances of Plant Origin.- 1.4 Action of Physical Agents.- 1.5 Conclusion.- References.- 2 Structure and Chemistry of Microtubules.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 General Morphology of MT.- 2.3 Structure of MT.- 2.3.1 Methods of Study.- 2.3.2 The Tubulin Subunits and the MT Lattice.- 2.3.3 The Central Core.- 2.3.4 The “Exclusion” Zone and the MT “Side-Arms”.- 2.4 Biochemistry of MT and Associated Proteins.- 2.4.1 Introduction.- 2.4.2 The Tubulin Molecule.- 2.4.2.1 Amino-Acid Sequence.- 2.4.2.2 Heterogeneity.- 2.4.2.3 Post-Transcriptional Changes.- 2.4.2.4 Shape.- 2.4.2.5 Antigenicity.- 2.4.3 The Tubulin-Associated Nucleotides.- 2.4.4 The Tubulin-Associated Enzymes.- 2.4.5 The Micro tubule-Associated Proteins (HMW Proteins, MAPs, Tau).- 2.4.5.1 MAP1 and MAP2 Proteins.- 2.4.5.2 The Tau Proteins.- 2.4.5.3 Other MT-Associated Proteins.- 2.5 Assembly and Disassembly of MT in Vitro.- 2.5.1 General Conditions Required for Assembly in Vitro. Significance of “Rings”.- 2.5.2 Role of MT-Associated Proteins.- 2.5.3 Assembly Without Associated Proteins.- 2.5.4 Role of Guanine Nucleotides in Assembly.- 2.5.5 Guanine Nucleotides, “Treadmilling” and “Polarity“.- 2.5.6 Thermodynamics of Assembly.- 2.5.7 Polymorphism of Assembly.- 2.5.8 Site-Initiated Assembly in Vitro.- 2.6 Summary.- References.- 3 General Physiology of Tubulins and Microtubules.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Tubulin Synthesis and Its Regulation.- 3.2.1 In Oogenesis and Early Stages of Development.- 3.2.2 In Adult Cells.- 3.2.3 In Relation with Ciliary Growth.- 3.2.4 Role of Hormones.- 3.3 Assembly of MT in Vivo.- 3.3.1 Role of Intracellular MTOC.- 3.3.2 Role of Calcium and Calmodulin.- 3.3.3 Other Regulatory Factors of Assembly.- 3.3.4 Thermodynamic Aspects.- 3.3.5 Differential Sensitivity of MT.- 3.3.6 Abnormal Assemblies in Vivo: Macro- and Megatubules.- 3.3.7 How do MT Assemble in the Cell?.- 3.4 Relations of MT with Other Cell Structures and Organelles.- 3.4.1 Cell Membranes.- 3.4.2 Nuclear Envelope.- 3.4.3 Mitochondria.- 3.4.4 Golgi Apparatus.- 3.4.5 Lysosomes.- 3.4.6 Ribosomes.- 3.4.7 Other Cell Components.- 3.5 Relations with Viruses and Endocellular Parasites.- 3.6 Extracellular MT.- References.- 4 Complex Microtubule Assemblies: Axonemes, Centrioles, Basal Bodies, Cilia, and Flagella.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Axonemes.- 4.3 Centrioles.- 4.3.1 Definition and Number.- 4.3.2 Ultrastructure.- 4.3.3 Biochemistry.- 4.3.4 Replication and Growth.- 4.3.5 Centriole Neoformation.- 4.3.6 Atypical Centrioles.- 4.3.7 Stability of the Centriolar MT.- 4.4 Cilia and Flagella. Introduction.- 4.4.1 Structure and Chemistry.- 4.4.2 The Nine Peripheral Doublets.- 4.4.3 The Central Pair MT.- 4.4.4 The Dynein Arms.- 4.4.5 Other Ciliary Structures.- 4.5 Basal Bodies.- 4.5.1 Structure.- 4.5.2 Formation.- 4.6 Regeneration of Cilia and Ciliogenesis.- 4.7 Atypical and Pathological Cilia.- References.- 5 Microtubule Poisons.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Colchicine and Colchicine Derivatives.- 5.2.1 Chemical Structure.- 5.2.2 The Tubulin-Colchicine Bond.- 5.2.3 Action of Colchicine on MT.- 5.2.4 Changes of IMF.- 5.2.5 Colchicine-Resistant Tubulins.- 5.2.6 Action on Nucleic Acid Metabolism.- 5.2.7 Colchicine Antagonists.- 5.2.8 Colchicine Pharmacology.- 5.3 The Catharanthus (Vinca) Alkaloids.- 5.3.1 Chemical Structure.- 5.3.2 Action on Tubulin and MT.- 5.3.3 The Vinca Crystals.- 5.3.4 Other Actions of Vinca Alkaloids.- 5.4 Podophyllotoxin and Related Molecules.- 5.5 Sulfhydryl Reagents.- 5.6 The Benzimidazole Derivatives.- 5.7 Griseofulvin.- 5.8 Anesthetic Drugs.- 5.9 Other MT Poisons.- 5.10 Taxol: An Agent That Favorizes MT Assembly.- 5.11 Action of Physical Agents and Heavy Water.- References.- 6 Cell Shape.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Disk-Shaped Blood Cells.- 6.2.1 Red Blood Cells.- 6.2.2 Blood Platelets and Thrombocytes.- 6.3 Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Shaping in Spermatogenesis.- 6.4 Other Cytoskeletal Functions of MT in Metazoa.- 6.4.1 Introduction.- 6.4.2 Epithelial Cells.- 6.4.3 Connective Tissue Cells.- 6.4.4 Schwann Cells and Glia.- 6.5 Egg Differentiation and Embryonic Growth.- 6.6 Cell Shape in Plants.- 6.6.1 MT and Cellulose Microfilaments.- 6.6.2 Are There MTOC in Plant Cells?.- 6.6.3 The Preprophase Band in Plant Mitoses.- 6.7 Cell Shape in Protozoa.- 6.8 MT with Mechanical Functions.- References.- 7 Cell Movement.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Intracellular Displacements and Motion.- 7.2.1 Saltatory Motion.- 7.2.2 Axoneme-Associated Movements.- 7.2.3 Movements Associated with Feeding in Simple Organisms.- 7.2.4 Other Intracytoplasmic Movements Related to MT.- 7.3 The Movement of Pigment Granules.- 7.4 Movements of Cell Membranes and “Capping”.- 7.4.1 Capping in Lymphocytes.- 7.4.2 In Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.- 7.4.3 Capping in Other Cells.- 7.5 Cell Motility and Locomotion.- 7.5.1 Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.- 7.5.2 Mononuclears and Macrophages.- 7.5.3 Lymphocytes.- 7.5.4 Other Cells.- 7.6 Ciliary Movements.- References.- 8 Secretion.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Endocrine Secretions.- 8.2.1 The Langerhans Islets.- 8.2.2 The Thyroid.- 8.2.3 The Parathyroid.- 8.2.4 Pituitary, Anterior Lobe.- 8.2.5 The Adrenals.- 8.3 Exocrine Secretions.- 8.3.1 Pancreas.- 8.3.2 Salivary and Lacrymal Glands.- 8.3.3 Mammary Gland and Milk Secretions.- 8.3.4 Gastric and Intestinal Glands.- 8.3.5 Hepatic Cells and Liver Secretions.- 8.4 Leukocytes and Related Cells.- 8.4.1 Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMN).- 8.4.2 Basophils and Mastcells.- 8.4.3 Monocytes and Macrophages.- 8.4.4 Plasmatocytes and the Secretion of Immunoglobulins.- 8.5 Other Cell Activities Related to Secretion.- 8.5.1 Fibroblasts, Osteoblasts, Chondrocytes, Ameloblasts, and Collagen Secretion.- 8.5.2 Other Cells.- 8.6 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Neurotubules and Neuroplasmic Transport.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 General Properties of Nerve MT.- 9.3 Relations of MT with Synaptic Vesicles.- 9.4 Microtubules and Nerve Cells Shape.- 9.5 Experimental Changes of Neuronal MT.- 9.6 Neuroplasmic Transport and MT.- 9.6.1 Introduction.- 9.6.2 Technical Approaches.- 9.6.3 Orthograde Flow.- 9.6.4 Retrograde Flow.- 9.6.5 The Transport of Neurosecretory Granules.- 9.6.6 Fate of the Transported Metabolites and of MT.- 9.7 Role of MT in Axoplasmic Transport.- 9.7.1 Colchicine.- 9.7.2 Other MT Poisons.- 9.7.3 Action of Cold and Heavy Water.- 9.8 Theories of Neuroplasmic Transport.- 9.9 MT and Sensory Cells.- References.- 10 Microtubules and Mitosis.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Some Aspects of the Possible Evolution of Mitosis.- 10.3 Some Types of Mitosis.- 10.3.1 Intranuclear MT.- 10.3.2 Partially Intranuclear MT.- 10.3.3 Extranuclear Spindles Attached to Nuclear Membrane and Chromosomes.- 10.3.4 Mitoses in Higher Plants and Animals.- 10.4 Methods of Study.- 10.5 MT and Mitotic Movements.- 10.5.1 Prophase.- 10.5.2 From Prophase to Metaphase.- 10.5.3 Anaphase.- 10.5.4 Telophase.- 10.6 Other Proteins Associated with Mitotic MT.- 10.6.1 Associated Proteins: MAPs, Tau Factor.- 10.6.2 Microfilaments: Actin, Myosin, Dynein.- 10.6.3 Calcium and Calmodulin.- 10.7 The Action of MT Poisons on Mitosis.- 10.7.1 General Aspects.- 10.7.2 Colchicine.- 10.7.3 Other Chemical MT Poisons.- 10.7.4 Taxol.- 10.7.5 Deuterium Oxide.- 10.8 The Action of Physical Factors on Mitosis.- 10.8.1 Cold.- 10.8.2 Heat.- 10.8.3 The Local Action of Ultraviolet Microbeams.- 10.8.4 High Hydrostatic Pressure.- 10.9 Microtubules and the Mechanisms of Mitosis.- 10.9.1 Introduction.- 10.9.2 Mitotic Movements in Isolated MA.- 10.9.3 The Role of Assembly-Disassembly.- 10.9.4 The Sliding-Filament Concept.- 10.9.5 “Zipping”.- 10.9.6 The Possible Role of Treadmilling.- 10.10 Conclusions.- References.- 11 MT and MT Poisons in Pathology and Medicine.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Pathology of MT Structures.- 11.2.1 Abnormal Cilia.- 11.2.2 Other Pathological Conditions.- 11.2.3 MT in Transformed, Neoplastic Cells.- 11.3 Therapeutic Uses of MT Poisons.- 11.3.1 Introduction.- 11.3.2 Colchicine.- 11.3.3 Colchicine Poisoning in Man.- 11.4 The Toxicity of the Vinca (Catharanthus) Alkaloids.- 11.4.1 Blood Platelets.- 11.4.2 Neurological Disturbances.- 11.5 Toxicity of MT Poisons in Cancer Chemotherapy 433 References.- 12 Post-Script and Outlook.- 12.1 Unity and Diversity.- 12.2 Microtubule-Associated Proteins (MAPs).- 12.3 Assembly and Disassembly.- 12.4 Microtubule Poisons.- 12.5 Non-Microtubular Tubulin.- 12.6 Micro tubules and Movement.- 12.7 Micro tubules and Cell Shape.- 12.8 Micro tubules and Evolution.- References.- Addenda Some of the Most Interesting Papers Published in 1983 and Early in 1984.- Recent Books and Reviews on Microtubules and Related Subjects.

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