Microwave Circulator Design, Second Edition

Microwave Circulator Design, Second Edition

by Douglas K. Linkhart

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608075836
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 01/31/2014
Pages: 364
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xv

1 Theory of Operation 1

1.1 Units, Conversions, and Symbols 1

1.2 The Physical Basis of Ferrimagnetism 4

1.3 Ferrimagnetic Resonance 11

1.4 Microwave Propagation in Ferrites 15

1.5 Other Technologies 29

1.5.1 Semiconductor Circulators 29

1.5.2 Nanotechnology Circulators 30

1.5.3 Thin Ferrite Films 31

1.5.4 Active Circulators 32

2 Circulator Specification 35

2.1 The Parameters 35

2.2 Reflections and Segmentation 48

2.3 Junction Circulators 52

2.3.1 Single-Ferrite (Non-Composite) Junction Circulators 54

2.3.2 Composite-Ferrite Junction Circulators 56

2.4 Lumped-Constant Circulators 56

2.5 Differential Phase Shift Circulators 58

2.6 Switching Circulators 60

2.7 Okada Circulators 61

2.8 Field-Displacement Isolators 61

2.9 Resonance Isolators 64

3 Applications of Circulators 69

3.1 Load Isolation 69

3.2 Duplexing 71

3.3 Multiplexing 76

3.4 Parametric Amplifiers 77

3.5 Phase Shifting 81

4 Material Selection 87

4.1 Ferrites 87

4.1.1 Ferrite Classes 87

4.1.2 Ferrite Manufacturing 88

4.1.3 Design Considerations 90

4.1.4 Test Methods 91

4.1.5 Specifications 93

4.1.6 Temperature Effects 93

4.1.7 Ferrite Selection 96

4.2 Magnet Selection 100

4.3 Magnetic Compensating Material Selection 102

4.4 Dielectric Selection 103

4.5 Metals Selection 104

5 Electrical Design 107

5.1 Junction Circulators 107

5.1.1 Basic Principles 107

5.1.2 Historical Papers 111

5.1.3 Above-Resonance Approximations 125

5.1.4 Below-Resonance Approximations 130

5.1.5 Network Synthesis 132

5.1.6 Center Conductor Geometries 143

5.1.7 Waveguide Junction Geometries 149

5.1.8 Stripline Circulator Synthesis Algorithm 153

5.1.9 Microstrip Circulator Synthesis Algorithm 157

5.1.10 Waveguide Junction Circulator Synthesis Algorithm 161

5.1.11 Okada Circulators 163

5.1.12 Circulators Having Composite Ferrites 165

5.2 Lumped-Constant Circulators 167

5.3 Differential Phase Shift Circulators 171

5.4 Resonance Isolators 177

5.5 Dummy Loads for Isolators 179

5.6 Temperature Effects 181

5.7 Intermodulation Distortion 186

5.8 RF Power Effects 187

5.8.1 Steady-State Thermal Effects 187

5.8.2 Transient Thermal Effects 191

5.8.3 Voltage Breakdown 193

5.8.4 Spin-Wave Instability 198

6 Magnetic Design 205

6.1 Magnet Sizing 205

6.1.1 Ferrite Demagnetization Factors 207

6.1.2 Leakage Flux Approximation 213

6.1.3 Approximate Design of Magnetic Circuits 214

6.1.4 Simulation of Magnetic Circuits 217

6.2 Shielding 219

6.3 Temperature Compensation 221

6.4 Completing the Circuit 223

6.5 Special Cases 225

6.5.1 Switching Circulators 225

6.5.2 Self-Biased Circulators 228

6.5.3 Considerations for Microstrip Circulators 228

7 Mechanical Design 231

7.1 Thermal Considerations 231

7.1.1 Stripline Power Handling 231

7.1.2 Power Dissipation in Ferrites 233

7.1.3 Cooling of Ferrites 234

7.2 Venting 235

7.3 Coaxial Junction Circulators 237

7.3.1 Packaging Techniques 237

7.3.2 Dimensional Tolerances 242

7.3.3 Controlling Cavity Resonances 244

7.3.4 Transitions 249

7.3.5 RFI Control 253

7.3.6 Dissimilar Metals 253

7.3.7 Finishes 253

7.4 Lumped-Constant Circulators 254

7.5 Waveguide Circulators 256

7.6 Resonance Isolators 258

8 Assembly and Testing 261

8.1 Assembly Techniques 261

8.2 Testing 268

8.2.1 Finding the Operating Point 268

8.2.2 Taking Data 271

8.2.3 RF Power Testing 272

8.2.4 Inter modulation Testing 272

8.2.5 Multipaction Testing 273

8.2.6 Magnetic Moment Measurement 275

8.2.7 Measurement Uncertainty and Gauge Studies 276

9 Tuning 281

9.1 Interaction Between Magnetic and Electrical Adjustments 281

9.2 Magnetic Adjustment 281

9.2.1 Above-Resonance Magnetic Adjustment 282

9.2.2 Below-Resonance Magnetic Adjustment 283

9.2.3 Magnet Charging, Calibration, and Stabilization 283

9.3 Electrical Adjustment 285

9.4 Eigenvalue Evaluation 295

10 Design Examples 301

10.1 Introduction to Examples 301

10.2 Above-Resonance Stripline Junction Circulator 302

10.3 Below-Resonance Stripline Junction Circulator 311

10.4 Waveguide Junction Circulator 319

10.5 Microstrip Circulator 324

10.6 Differential Phase Shift Circulator 329

10.7 Lumped-Constant Circulator 333

List of Symbols 339

Frequently Used Equations 347

About the Author 351

Index 353

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Microwave Circulator Design, Second Edition 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
FRINGEINDEPENEDENTREVIEW More than 1 year ago
Are you a microwave engineer and technician who wants to design and build circulators successfully? If you are, then this book is for you. Author Douglas K. Linkhart, has done an outstanding job of writing a book that presents theory, information, and design procedures. Author Linkhart, begins with a discussion of the various units used in circulator design computations. Next, the author describes how to specify a circulator. Then, he examines the applications of circulators. He continues by presenting the material selection criteria.  The author then discusses the propagation of microwave energy in the circulator junction.  Next, he describes the design of junction circulator magnetic circuits. Then, the author presents the thermal design procedures. He continues by discussing how the assembly process involves hands-on-work prior to testing, in order to gather information about circulator performance. The author then describes the use of eigenvalues to evaluate the electrical performance of circulators. Finally, the author reviews design examples, which demonstrate how the material in this book could be applied to real-world design tasks.  This most excellent book continues to fill the need for comprehensive circulator design information and procedures.  Furthermore, this terrific book also explores electrical measurement errors that contribute to differences between computed and measured results.