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Military Avionics Systems
     

Military Avionics Systems

by Ian Moir, Allan Seabridge
 

ISBN-10: 1563478331

ISBN-13: 9781563478338

Pub. Date: 04/15/2006

Publisher: American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics

This book introduces the military roles expected of aircraft types and describes the avionics systems required to fulfill these roles. These range from technology and architectures through to navigations systems, sensors, computing architectures, and the human-machine interface. It enables students to put together combinations of systems in order to perform specific

Overview

This book introduces the military roles expected of aircraft types and describes the avionics systems required to fulfill these roles. These range from technology and architectures through to navigations systems, sensors, computing architectures, and the human-machine interface. It enables students to put together combinations of systems in order to perform specific military roles.

A complementary volume to the authors' previous title, Civil Avionics Systems, this book covers a wide range of military aircraft roles and systems applications. It offers clear and concise system descriptions; includes case studies and examples from real-life, current projects; and features numerous illustrations and photographs. It is a valuable resource for students of aerospace engineering as well as practitioners in the field of aerospace who wish to extend their knowledge.

About the Author:
Ian Moir BSc, CEng, FRAeS, FIEE work for 18 years at Smiths Industries, Cheltenham, UK

About the Author:
Allan Seabridge BA, MPhil is Chief Flight Systems Engineer at BAE Systems

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781563478338
Publisher:
American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Publication date:
04/15/2006
Pages:
488
Product dimensions:
6.70(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.50(d)

Table of Contents


Series preface     xvii
Acknowledgements     xix
About the authors     xxi
Introduction     1
Military roles     7
Introduction     7
Air superiority     8
Role description     8
Key performance characteristics     8
Crew complement     9
Systems architecture     9
Air superiority - aircraft types     11
Ground attack     11
Role description     11
Key performance characteristics     11
Crew complement     12
Systems architecture     12
Ground attack - aircraft types     12
Strategic bomber     12
Role description     12
Key performance characteristics     14
Crew complement     14
Systems architecture     14
Strategic bomber - aircraft types     15
Maritime patrol     16
Role description     16
Anti-surface unit warfare (ASuW) role     17
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) role     17
Search and rescue (SAR) role     18
Datum searches     19
Area searches     20
Scene-of-action commander     20
Exclusive economic zone protection     21
Oil and gas rig patrols     21
Anti-pollution     21
Fishery protection     21
Customs and excise cooperation     21
Key performance characteristics     22
Crew complement     22
Systems architecture     22
MPA aircraft types     22
Battlefield surveillance     24
Role description     24
Key performance characteristics     24
Crew complement     25
Systems architecture     25
Battlefield surveillance aircraft types     25
Airborne early warning     26
Role description     26
Key performance characteristics     27
Crew complement     27
Systems architecture     27
AEW aircraft types     28
Electronic warfare     29
Role description     29
Electronic countermeasures     29
Electronic support measures     30
Signals intelligence (SIGINT)     30
Key performance characteristics     31
Crew complement      31
Systems architecture     32
Example aircraft types     32
Photographic reconnaissance     32
Role description     32
Key performance characteristics     34
Crew complement     34
Systems architecture     34
Typical aircraft types     34
Air-to-air refuelling     35
Role description     35
Key performance characteristics     37
Crew complement     37
Systems architecture     37
Aircraft types     38
Troop/materiel transport     39
Role description     39
Key performance characteristics     39
Crew complement     39
Systems architecture     39
Typical aircraft types     40
Unmanned air vehicles     41
Training     43
Typical aircraft types     45
Special roles     45
Examples of special roles     45
Summary     45
Further reading     46
Technology and architectures     47
Evolution of avionics architectures     47
Distributed analogue architecture     49
Distributed digital architecture     50
Federated digital architecture     52
Integrated modular architecture     54
Open architecture issues     54
Impact of digital systems     56
Response of the services to digital avionics systems issues     57
Need to embrace COTS     58
Aerospace-specific data buses     60
Tornado serial     60
ARINC 429     62
MIL-STD-1553B     64
STANAG 3910     67
JIAWG architecture     70
Generic JIAWG architecture     70
High-speed data bus     72
PI bus     73
TM bus     73
Obsolescence issues     73
COTS data buses     74
Fibre channel     75
Fibre channel options     77
IEEE 1394 firewire     77
Real-time operating systems     78
Key attributes     78
Safety     79
Software partitioning     80
Software languages     82
Security     82
RF integration     83
Primary radar evolution     84
Independent systems of the 1950s      84
Integrated systems of the 1960s and 1970s     85
Integrated modular architecture of the 1990s     86
JIAWG RF subsystem integration     87
Pave Pace/F-35 shared aperture architecture     94
References     97
Basic radar systems     99
Basic principles of radar     99
Radar antenna characteristics     104
Major radar modes     107
Air-to-air search     107
Air-to-air tracking     108
Air-to-air track-while-scan     109
Ground mapping     110
Antenna directional properties     111
Pulsed radar architecture     112
Pulsed radar components     112
Modulator     113
Transmitter     113
Antenna     113
Receiver     114
Video processor     114
Pulsed modulation     114
Receiver characteristics     116
Noise     116
Clutter     122
Radar range equation     122
Doppler radar     123
Other uses of radar     124
Frequency modulation ranging     124
Terrain-following radar      125
Continuous wave illumination     126
Multimode operation     127
Target tracking     128
Range tracking     128
Angle tracking     129
Sequential lobing     129
Conical scan     130
Monopulse     132
References     134
Advanced radar systems     135
Pulse compression     135
Coherent transmission     137
Fourier transform     140
Pulsed Doppler operation     140
Range ambiguities     143
Effect of the PRF on the frequency spectrum - Doppler ambiguities     144
Range and Doppler ambiguities     145
Pulsed Doppler radar implementation     149
Receiver     150
Signal processor     150
Radar data processor     154
Advanced antennas     156
Principle of the phased array     156
Planar arrays     157
Electronically scanned array     158
Active electronically steered array (AESA)     160
Synthetic aperture radar     164
Low observability     170
Factors affecting the radar cross-section      173
Reducing the RCS     178
Comparative RCS values     179
Low probability of intercept operation     180
References     181
Electrooptics     183
Introduction     183
Television     186
Night-vision goggles     189
IR imaging     191
IR imaging device     194
Rotating scanner     196
Planar image     197
Focal plane array or 'staring array'     198
IR detector technology     199
IR tracking     202
IR seeker heads     202
Image tracking     204
IR search and track systems     205
Lasers     206
Principles of operation     207
Laser sensor applications     211
US Air Force airborne laser (ABL)     214
Laser safety     215
Integrated systems     216
Electrooptic sensor fusion     216
Pod installations     218
Turret installations     220
Internal installations     224
References     228
Electronic warfare     229
Introduction     229
Signals intelligence (SIGINT)     233
Electronic intelligence (ELINT)     234
Communications intelligence (COMINT)     236
Electronic support measures     238
Electronic countermeasures and counter-countermeasures     241
Noise jamming     241
Burnthrough     243
Deception jamming     244
Deployment of the jamming platform     245
Low probability of intercept (LPI) radar     246
Defensive aids     247
Radar warning receiver     248
Missile warning receiver     249
Laser warning systems     249
Countermeasure dispensers     250
Chaff and flares     251
Towed decoy     252
Integrated defensive aids systems     253
AN/APG-79 AESA radar     253
AN/ALR-67 radar warning receiver     253
AN/ALQ-214 integrated defensive electronic countermeasures (IDECM)     254
AN/ALE-47 countermeasure dispenser     255
References     256
Communications and identification     257
Definition of CNI     257
RF spectrum     258
Communications control systems     259
RF propagation      259
High frequency     261
Very high frequency     262
Satellite communications     264
Transponders     266
Air traffic control (ATC) transponder - mode S     267
Traffic collision and avoidance system     269
Automatic dependent surveillance - address mode (ADS-A)     272
Automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast mode (ADS-B)     272
Indentification friend or foe (IFF)     272
Data links     273
JTIDS operation     275
Other data links     277
Network-centric operations     277
References     279
Navigation     281
Navigation principles     281
Introduction     281
Basic navigation     282
Radio navigation     284
Oceanic crossings     285
Inertial navigation fundamentals     286
Satellite navigation     287
Differential GPS     288
Wide-area augmentation system (WAAS)     288
Local-area augmentation system (LAAS)     289
Integrated navigation     290
Sensor usage - phases of flight     291
GPS overlay programme      292
Categories of GPS receiver     292
Flight management system     292
FMS CDU     294
FMS functions     296
LNAV     297
Airway navigation     298
Area navigation     299
VNAV     299
Four-dimensional navigation     299
Full performance based navigation     299
FMS procedures     300
Traffic collision and avoidance system (TCAS)     300
GPWS and EGPWS     300
Navigation aids     302
Automatic direction finding     303
Very high-frequency omnirange (VOR)     303
Distance-measuring equipment (DME)     303
TACAN     304
VORTAC     305
Hyperbolic navigation systems - LORAN-C     305
Instrument landing system     307
Microwave landing system (MLS)     309
Inertial navigation     310
Principles of operation     310
Stand-alone inertial navigation system     311
Air data and inertial reference systems (ADIRS)     313
Inertial platform implementations     315
Space axes to the Greenwich meridian     316
Earth axes to geographic axes     316
Geographic to great circle (navigation)     318
Great circle/navigation axes to body axes (strapdown)     319
Platform alignment     319
Platform levelling     320
Gyrocompass alignment     320
Historical perspective - use of inertial platforms     321
Global navigation satellite systems     322
Introduction to GNSS     322
Principles of operation     323
Integrity features     324
GPS satellite geometry     325
Global air transport management (GATM)     325
Communications     326
Air-to-ground VHF data link     326
Air-to-ground SATCOM communications     327
HF data link     327
8.33 kHz VHF voice communications     327
Protected ILS     328
Navigation     328
Area navigation (RNAV)     328
RNP RNAV and actual navigation performance     329
Required navigation performance (RNP)     329
RNAV standards within Europe     329
RVSM     330
RVSM implementation     331
Differential GPS enhancements     331
Surveillance      332
References     333
Weapons carriage and guidance     335
Introduction     335
F-16 Fighting Falcon     336
F-16 evolution     337
F-16 mid-life update     340
F-16 E/F (F-16 block 60)     343
AH-64 C/D Longbow Apache     345
Baseline system     345
Longbow Apache     345
Modernisation of TADS/PNVS     348
Weapons     349
Eurofighter Typhoon     349
Sensors and navigation     352
Displays and controls     352
Flight control     353
Utilities control     353
Systems integration     353
Survival/countermeasures     354
Weapons     354
F/A-22 Raptor     357
Introduction     357
AESA radar     357
Electronic warfare and electronic support measures     358
CNI     360
Displays/cockpit     360
Vehicle management system     361
Weapons     361
Nimrod MRA4     361
Navigation and displays     363
Utilities control      365
Communications     365
Mission and sensor systems     366
DASS     366
Weapons and stores     367
F-35 joint strike fighter     367
Integrated common processors     368
AESA radar     368
Integrated EW/CNI and EO systems     368
Displays suite     369
Vehicle management system     369
Weapons     369
Gun     370
MIL-STD-1760 standard stores interface     370
Air-to-air missiles     373
AIM-9 Sidewinder     373
AIM-120 AMRAAM     374
AIM-132 ASRAAM     375
Air-to-ground ordnance     375
Wind-corrected munition dispenser     376
Joint direct attack munition     376
AGM-88 HARM     377
ALARM     377
Storm Shadow/SCALP EN     377
Resources     378
References     378
Vehicle Management Systems     379
Introduction     379
Historical development of control of utility systems     381
Summary of utility systems     383
Mechanical systems     383
Crew systems      383
Power systems     383
Fuel system     384
Air systems     384
Electrical power distribution systems     384
Vehicle management system (VMS)     384
Prognostics and health management     385
Control of utility systems     385
Subsystem descriptions     389
Mechanical systems     390
Primary flight controls     390
Secondary flight controls     392
Landing gear     392
Wheels, brakes and tyres     393
Arrestor hook/brake parachute     393
Actuation mechanisms     394
Crew systems     394
Crew escape     394
Aircrew clothing     394
Life support     395
Oxygen/OBOGS     395
Canopy jettison     397
Power systems     397
Propulsion system     397
Secondary power     397
Emergency power     398
Electrical power generation and distribution     399
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet     399
F/A-22 Raptor     399
Hydraulic power generation and distribution     400
Fuel systems      401
Air systems     403
Electrical utilisation systems     405
Prognostics and health management     405
Design considerations     406
General     406
Processor and memory     407
Interfacing     407
Software     408
Obsolescence     408
Human-machine interface     409
References     410
Further reading     410
Displays     411
Introduction     411
Crew station     412
Hawker Siddley (BAe) Harrier GR.Mk1 and GR.Mk3 (RAF) and AV-8A (USMC)     412
McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet     413
Eurofighter Typhoon     415
Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor     416
Boeing (McDonnell Douglas/Hughes) AH-64D Longbow Apache     417
Head-up display     418
HUD principles     419
Collimating (refractive optics) head-up display     420
Field of view     421
Collimating (refractive) HUD - examples     421
British Aerospace Harrier GR.Mk1 and GR.Mk3     421
McDonnell Douglas/British Aerospace Night-Attack Harrier II (GR-7 and AV-8B)     422
Pupil-forming (reflective/diffractive) head-up displays     423
Pupil-forming (reflective/diffractive) HUD - examples     425
F16 LANTIRN HUD - multibounce quasi-axial configuration     425
Eurofighter Typhoon HUD - single-element off-axis configuration     426
Head-up display functional description     427
Image generation     429
HUD symbology and principles of use     430
Primary flight data     431
Navigation symbology     432
Air-to-surface weapon aiming     432
Air-to-air weapon aiming     433
Helmet-mounted displays     434
HMD physiological and environmental aspects     436
Head tracker     437
Optica] head tracker     438
Electromagnetic head tracker     438
HMD accuracy and dynamic performance     438
HMD optical configurations     439
Helmet-mounted displays - examples     442
Integrated helmet and display sight system (IHADS)     442
Helmet-mounted sight     442
Joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS)     443
Eurofighter Typhoon HMD     444
Joint strike fighter HMD     446
Helmet-mounted display functional description      447
Binocular day/night HMD architectures     448
HMD symbology     448
HMD as a primary flight reference     449
Head-down displays     450
CRT multifunction head-down display     450
Shadow-mask CRT     450
X/Y deflection amplifier     452
Shadow-mask CRT characteristics     452
CRT MFD: principles of operation     453
F/A-18 and AV-8B multipurpose colour display (MPCD)     453
AMLCD multifunction head-down display     455
AMLCD display head assembly     455
Backlight     457
AMLCD characteristics     458
AMLCD sourcing     459
AMLCD MFD: principles of operation     459
Integrated display unit     460
Emerging display technologies     461
Microdisplay technologies     461
High-intensity light sources     462
Transmissive LCD     462
Reflective LCD     462
Digital micromirror device     463
Rear-projection 'big picture' head-down display     466
Solid-state helmet-mounted display     467
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)     469
Virtual retinal displays      470
Visibility requirements     471
Military requirements     471
Head-down display: high ambient - sun rear     472
Head-down display: high ambient - sun forward     472
Head-up display and helmet-mounted display: high ambient - sun forward     473
Low ambient - dusk/dawn transition     474
Night     474
US DoD definitions and requirements     475
European (Eurofighter Typhoon) definitions and requirements     475
Viewability examples     476
AMLCD head-down display     476
Head-up display     477
Night-vision imaging system compatibility     477
References     480
Bibliography     483
Commercial handbooks, standards and specifications     484
Military handbooks, standards and specifications     485
Advisory circulars     485
Standards     486
Technical standing orders     486
Useful websites     486
Glossary     487
Units     499
Aircraft types     500
Index     503

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