The theory of organizational institutionalization provides the basis for optimum efficiency and effectiveness within organizations. Those that have become institutionalized indicate a more stable government or a more mature organization. Once an organization is recognized as an institution, it gains more legitimacy and authority, leading to greater effectiveness. This book examines the institutionalization of federal independent commissions. If the requirement for an independent commission exists indefinitely, then it is possible for such a commission to become institutionalized. One example is the base realignment and closure (BRAC) independent commission. As of 2005, Congress established 5 BRAC commissions to facilitate the realignment and closure of military bases. The requirement for future BRAC commissions will likely always exist. Currently, there is no mechanism to close any military installations within the US. This book argues that the BRAC commission should be recognized as an institution requiring legislation permanently establishing it. Permanent independent commissions, then, would be a new evolution in the structure of the U.S. government.