"It premieres the most adept researchers in the field who have bravely and soundly followed mixed methodology approaches. "
—NACADA (National ACademic ADvising Association)
In recent years, researchers have begun to combine quantitative and qualitative approaches within single study research designs. As such, the literature on mixed methods research has grown at a rapid pace. While more methodological books addressing mixed methods are becoming available, the foundational writings of this field are still scattered across diverse disciplines and their wide range of publications outlets, leaving students and researchers at a disadvantage to find the exemplary or model studies to help them understand how to conduct their own mixed methods research.
In light of the dispersed nature of the mixed methods literature, The Mixed Methods Reader editors have organized a collection of key methodological mixed methods discussions and exemplar mixed methods research studies in one easy-to-access location. This integrative collection draws from the international literature appearing across diverse research disciplines over the past thirty years. The Mixed Methods Reader is divided into two parts: Part I – Methodological Selections and Part II – Exemplar Research Studies. Part I includes a collection of 14 foundational writings from the mixed methods research literature. These readings convey the overall development and evolution of mixed methods research and address essential topics for researchers new to the field of mixed methods research. These topics include its foundations; design types; implementation issues such as sampling, data analysis, and validity; rhetorical devices for reporting mixed methods studies; and critiques about the current thinking in the field. Part II includes 9 exemplar mixed methods research studies drawn from a range of disciplines and international scholars. The studies were intentionally selected to illustrate four major types of mixed methods designs. As with the methodological chapters, the editors organize the exemplar research studies so that the reader can see a natural progression of the different approaches to conducting mixed methods research.
The Mixed Methods Reader, edited by two leading researchers in mixed methods research, offers students and researchers a rich balance of foundational works and exemplary studies across a range of disciplines. This reader is an invaluable primary or supplementary resource for courses that address mixed methods research.
- Each of the 14 foundational readings offers a brief introduction by the editors, discussing the reading's overall importance to mixed methods research and explaining what aspect of the research process is addressed.
- The foundational readings are organized around the research process to facilitate its use as a text or supplement for research courses emphasizing mixed methods approaches. They cover research design types and purposes, data collection, data analysis, reporting of mixed methods studies, and future directions.
- Each of the 9 exemplary studies include a brief commentary from the editors, highlighting the noteworthy features of the article. These exemplary studies range in discipline and setting yet focus intently on the research process and the various ways of conducting mixed methods studies.
- Visual diagrams accompany each exemplary study: These visual diagrams will convey the overall structure and approach used in each of the studies.
- Discussion questions accompanying each selection further call attention to the key points and help a student or individual researcher to tie together the core concepts presented in the commentaries and articles.
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About the Author
Vicki L. Plano Clark, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Quantitative and Mixed Methods Research Methodologies area of the University of Cincinnati’s School of Education. Her methodological scholarship aims to delineate useful designs for conducting mixed methods research, examine procedural issues associated with achieving meaningful integration within these designs, and consider larger questions about the personal, interpersonal, and social contexts for the adoption and use of mixed methods. She recently coauthored the book Mixed Methods Research: A Guide to the Field (2016; SAGE) with Nataliya V. Ivankova and has coauthored several books with John W. Creswell, including The Mixed Methods Reader (2008; SAGE) and Understanding Research: A Consumer’s Guide (2010, 2015; Pearson Education). She is a founding coeditor of the Mixed Methods Research Series (SAGE Publishing). She also currently serves as an associate editor for the Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) and Program Chair for the Mixed Methods Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. In 2011, she co-led the development of Best Practices for Mixed Methods in the Health Sciences for the National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. Her teaching focuses on foundations of research methodologies and mixed methods research, including a two-semester mixed methods sequence and special topics courses. She also engages in research and evaluation projects on a wide array of topics such as the management of cancer pain, researchers’ development of visual displays, the effectiveness of school reform initiatives, the quality of communication between attorneys and their clients, and the development of innovative curricular materials for undergraduate physics.
John W. Creswell, Ph D, is a professor of family medicine and co-director of the Michigan Mixed Methods Research and Scholarship Program at the University of Michigan. He has authored numerous articles and 28 books on mixed methods research, qualitative research, and research design. While at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, he held the Clifton Endowed Professor Chair, served as director of a mixed methods research office, founded SAGE’s Journal of Mixed Methods Research, and was an adjunct professor of family medicine at the University of Michigan and a consultant to the Veterans Administration health services research center. He was a Senior Fulbright Scholar to South Africa in 2008 and to Thailand in 2012. In 2011, he co-led a national working group on mixed methods practices at the National Institutes of Health, served as a visiting professor at Harvard’s School of Public Health, and received an honorary doctorate from the University of Pretoria, South Africa. In 2014, he was the president of the Mixed Methods International Research Association. In 2015, he joined the staff of Family Medicine at the University of Michigan. John has been teaching research methods courses for the past 40 years..
Table of Contents
List of Editor's Introduction FiguresIntroductionPart I. Methodological SelectionsChapter 1. The Evolution of Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 2. Pragmatism as a Philosophical Foundation for Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 3. The Transformative-Emancipatory Perspective as a Philosophical Foundation for Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 4. Triangulation as the First Mixed Methods DesignChapter 5. Identifying the Purposes for Mixed Methods DesignsChapter 6. A Notation System for Mixed Methods DesignsChapter 7. An Expanded Typology for Classifying Mixed Methods Research Into DesignsChapter 8. Different Sampling Techniques for Mixed Methods StudiesChapter 9. Data Analysis Strategies in Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 10. Expanding the Reasons for Conducting Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 11. Types of Legitimation (Validity) in Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 12. Powerful Rhetorical Devices Used in Writing Mixed Methods ResearchChapter 13. An Improved Role for Qualitative Research in Mixed MethodsChapter 14. An Alternative to Reconciling the Different Realities of Qualitative and Quantitative ResearchPart II. Exemplar Research StudiesChapter 15. A Concurrent/Triangulation Mixed Methods Design With Merged ResultsChapter 16. A Concurrent/Triangulation Mixed Methods Design With Data TransformationChapter 17. An Embedded Experimental Before-Intervention Mixed Methods DesignChapter 18. An Embedded Experimental During-Intervention Mixed Methods DesignChapter 19. An Embedded Experimental After-Intervention Mixed Methods DesignChapter 20. A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design to Explain FindingsChapter 21. A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Design With Participant SelectionChapter 22. A Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design With Instrument DevelopmentChapter 23. A Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design to Generate and Test a ModelReferences Cited in the Editors' IntroductionsIndex