About the Author
Stevanne Auerbach, PhD. has for past 40 years been one of the most respected names in the toy industry known as Dr. Toy an expert in child development, education, special education, psychology, parent education, toys and children's products. She selects and evaluates the newest, best, educational, creative and active toys and other products for annual awards programs. Dr Auerbach consults, evaluates, reviews toys and products for Dr. Toy's Guide www.drtoy.com.
Born in New York City, Dr. Auerbach attended Queens College, and was a teacher in New York City, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. After completing an MA at George Washington University, and a Ph.D. at The Union Institute Graduate School she focused on writing, consulting and speaking with emphasis on family issues, child development, parenting, play, toys, childcare and learning
Dr. Auerbach has published 16 books, a children's book, a novel, collection about butterflies, and of poetry, hundreds of articles, was King Syndicated Columnist for 5 years on toys, and also toy expert on magazines such as Parenting, Family Circle, Creative Child and on websites such as Sears Toy Shop, Pearson Education, Club Mom, iparenting, etoys, and many others.
She has made many presentations to parents and professionals, been interviewed by many journalists and authors in the USA and other countries; and interviewed on radio and TV for many years. She lives in Northern California Bay Area, is married, a mother and playful grandmother.
Dr Auerbach worked in Washington DC as a Program Specialist at the U.S. Department of Education, approved the first grant for "Sesame Street," evaluated "Title One Programs," established the first model childcare center for children of employees working for the federal government; testified before a Congressional Committee (1969) on behalf of childcare needs among families of federal, state and local workers; Later, at the Office of Economic Opportunity, she planned the National Childcare R & D Program, and coordinated the Day Care Forum at the White House Conference on Children (1970)
Dr. Auerbach, a long time child care advocate, is the author of many articles, and 16 books on parenting, childcare, and toys including: My Butterfly Collection (2016)The Contest ( 2010) Dr. Toy's Smart Play Smart Toys 4th edition (2015) Published in the USA and 13 countries) ; Toys for a Lifetime (1999 ) The Toy Chest ( 1986 ) The Whole Child ( 1980) Choosing Childcare (1976, 1981, 1991, 2009), Child Care: A Comprehensive Guide (1975-1979), and Confronting the Childcare Crisis (1979) Cross-Cultural Study of Childcare Services (1974) The Alphabet Tree (1985) and Petals-Poetry (1979)
Read an Excerpt
Model Programs and Their Components
Child Care: A Comprehensive Guide
By Stevanne Auerbach
Openroad Integrated MediaCopyright © 2011 Stevanne Auerbach
All rights reserved.
HUSTLING RESOURCES FOR DAY CARE
James A. Levine
Most day-care programs, with budgets dependent on allocations from government bureaus, the community chest, and private philanthropies, suffer from the annual-grant syndrome. Characterized by frenzied proposal writing, speechmaking, and soliciting, the syndrome has plaguelike proportions: day-care directors all over the country scurry from meeting to meeting, red eyed and ragged from lack of sleep, trying to secure operating support.
Very little has been written about the hustle for funds and other resources, despite its importance to program survival; day-care directors are usually too busy writing proposals to write articles. However, day-care programs have developed a variety of imaginative techniques to enlist government and foundation grants, support from the business sector, and donated goods and services. It would be impossible to enumerate them all. Offered here are a few strategies which should apply to diverse geographical locations and programs, and references to several helpful publications and organizations.
Where You Begin: The Budget
If a budget were merely a tally of the dollars and cents it costs to operate a program, the prospect of preparing one wouldn't be so mysterious and intimidating. Given limited resources, budget-making means not just juggling figures, but making difficult decisions about priorities and values: inclusion of one program component may mean exclusion of another; setting administrative salaries at a certain level may mean less money for staff members who work all day with the children; rewards to teachers for graduate credits may devalue the unschooled ability of others. It is precisely because a program's budget reflects so much that it is a useful tool for internal program analysis; it should always be available to parents, staff, and board.
Since the budget is also one succinct way of conveying to funding agencies how your program functions, the way you conceptualize and write it up can be important. Sometimes budget formats are prescribed by funding agencies. While you may have to comply with a prescribed form, you shouldn't adopt it as your own unless it is helpful in analyzing your program and presenting it to a wider audience. After all, you may seek funding from several agencies, and some will accept your way of doing things. So start with a format that makes sense to you.
Whatever format you choose, it should account not only for cash resources but for the cash-equivalent value of donated goods and volunteered services. Although these in-kind contributions represent between 5–25 percent of the resources in all good programs, they are often excluded from budgets. Only by including them can your budget reflect the totality of your program.
Helpful information on budget preparation can be found in:
Day Care: How to Plan, Develop, and Operate a Day Care Center by E. Belle Evans, et al. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971 (hardcover $6.95, paper $3.95). The best book to start with. Forty-two pages on "Planning a Budget" include two actual budgets — one high and one low — for a program of the same general standard of quality. However, the book does not deal with functional budgeting, a useful format now being widely adopted by state agencies and the United Way.
A Cost Analysis System for Day Care Programs by Eva C. Galambos, Ph.D. Atlanta: Southeastern Day Care Project, Southern Regional Education Board, 1971 ($1.00). This clearly written guide shows, step by step, how to prepare a functional budgeting system. The system differentiates and costs out as separate functions: management and administration, child care, food and eating, plant and maintenance, transportation, health, social services, and special functions. Available from the Day Care and Child Development Council of America, 1401 K St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
Manual on Organization, Financing, and Administration of Day Care Centers in New York City: For Community Groups, Their Lawyers, and Other Advisers, 2d Ed. by the Day Care Consultation Service, Bank Street College of Education, 1971 ($5.00). Although written specifically for New York City, the manual has wide applicability. A section on "Accounting and Management for Day Care Centers" outlines procedures that may help you monitor your income and expenditures. Available from the Bank Street College Bookstore, 610 W. 112 Street, New York, New York 10025.
A Day Care Guide for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents by Richard Ruopp, et al. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973 (hardcover $10.00). Basically a condensation of Abt Associates 1971 report on program models and costs, A Study in Child Care, this book should be a mind expander for program and budget conceptualization.
Day Care #7: Administration by Malcolm Host and Pearl B. Heller. Washington: Office of Child Development, 1971 ($1.25). One of several in a series of excellent handbooks on day care, this includes a chapter on "Decentralized Budget Development and Administration." Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Ask for stock #1791-0161.
Although an array of federal programs supposedly support the provision of daycare services, actual support is not so easy to come by. Appropriations for day care have fallen way below congressional authorization, and a jumble of rulings to and from agencies administering funds has produced a situation in which dollars sputter inconsistently from the federal tap. Though funding at the state, county, and city level varies widely, it is often linked to federal funding patterns. Government funds at all levels seem to appear, like the smile of the Cheshire cat, without warning or duration.
Up-to-date information is crucial in dealing with the phantom funding situation. A few resources may be helpful:
Federal Funds for Day Care Projects (Women's Bureau Pamphlet 14, Revised), 1972 ($1.00). A listing of all sources of federal support, available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Ask for stock number 2916-0010.
Day Care and Child Development Reports, published biweekly by Plus Publications, Inc. (2814 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20070), provides reliable current information on activities of the federal government that affect child care. If you can't afford the yearly subscription rate of $75, chip in with a few programs. If you can afford it, share copies with a less well-endowed program.
Your federal and state legislators — or their staff people — should have quick access to information about funding for child care. In seeking information from them, it's psychologically advantageous to be more than another voice on the telephone. Before you're in need of information, make an appointment to meet your elected legislator or the staff most likely to deal with child-care issues. You can use the initial appointment to ask for your legislator's opinions on child-care legislation and to explain your program.
It's not unusual to anticipate a call or visit from a representative of the government agency funding your program with feelings like those of an elementary-school child called to the principal's office: What did I do now? And so, some programs are content to leave well enough alone when the person assigned to monitor or advise them doesn't show up for months. Sometimes, however, the government-liaison person can offer useful critical commentary about your program, as well as information about funding trends. And if you make an effort to educate that person about your program, you may develop an ally willing to interpret your accomplishments to higher-ups and to keep you apprised of available funding. So rather than heaving a sigh of relief when your government agent calls to cancel an appointment, it might make sense to request a rescheduled one.
In some states and localities, administrators and elected officials are implacably hostile to day care, especially if it is being advocated by community or minority people. In such cases you may get help from representatives or field staff of nationally organized advocacy groups such as: the Black Child Development Institute, 1028 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036; Children's Defense Fund, 1763 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.; Day Care and Child Development Council of America, 1012 14th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Even with access to the appropriate literature and personnel, you may not learn about available government funds until shortly before proposals to secure them are due. Survival in day care often means working with a bureaucracy distinguished for its insistence on obtaining irrelevant information from program operators and its incompetence in providing important information, such as information about current funds available for day-care programs.
Case in point: One Friday at 4 P.M. a special delivery letter arrives at the day-care center announcing that the state department of community affairs — or any of a number of state bureaus — has $120,000 available for child care and is requesting proposals from programs across the state. All proposals must comply, of course, with the standard format consisting of seventeen parts, each with six subparts. The deadline for all proposals — noon the following Monday — leaves four-and-a-half official working hours for preparation of the center's proposal.
This situation and variants of it are no less outrageous than they are common. While boards, parents, and staff must protest these administrative nightmares and ward off their recurrence, in the short run they often have little choice but to cope. Here's one shortcut in the proposal writing game. Maintain one or more looseleaf notebooks with tabs corresponding to the standard proposal items: geographic area to be served, definition of need, services to be provided, history of agency, composition of board of directors, philosophy of program, educational curriculum, chart of personnel, résumés of personnel, budget, and so on. In the looseleaf you can retain photocopies of pertinent information from previous proposals, typed without headings or roman numerals. Each time you have to do a new proposal, fill in the headings and roman numerals as necessary. Even if you have to do substantial rewriting, you'll save many precious hours and a good deal of emotional drain.
While the Comprehensive Child Development Bill was supposedly en route to passage, several of the major national foundations supported a limited number of day-care programs, technical assistance groups, and new day-care publications. Theory was that foundation capital invested in day-care projects would demonstrate how the inevitable federal dollars could most effectively be spent. With President Nixon's 1971 veto of the child-development legislation and subsequent federal cutbacks in social services, national foundations have been besieged with requests for operating support from day-care programs. The simple fact is that the major foundations can't possibly take on the job that should be done by the government, and they are reluctant to fund any program that isn't highly innovative, replicable in other settings, and — ironically — likely to encourage governmental support to ensure its continuation. If you need money to operate your program or to develop a new program component, try your local or regional foundations. Money is tight everywhere, but at least the local foundations are in a better position to understand the importance of your program to the community.
There are several ways to find out about foundations, their areas of interest, and their grant-making policies:
The Foundation Center (888 Seventh Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019; 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036). While it does not direct applicants for funds to particular foundations, the Foundation Center is the library for seeking information about foundations, with current files on the activities and program interests of over 30,000 foundations in the United States. The center's ever helpful librarians can provide you with:
A computer print-out listing all foundation grants over $5,000 made since 1971 in any program area. A request for all grants made in day care, child care, and early education will pretty well cover the field. The fee for this service is $15 for a minimal print-out of 50 grants and 20¢ for each additional grant listed. To receive a print-out you must submit a search-request form, available from the center or any of its regional collections. The center will soon have listings of all grants made for day care printed on microfiche, making this information available more quickly and less expensively.
A free booklet providing advice on How to Find Information on the Foundations.
Referral to the center's regional collections (Atlanta, Austin, Berkeley, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles, St. Louis) and to other sources of information about foundations.
Taft Information System. The most efficiently organized guide to the major foundations includes brief descriptions of their programs, guidelines for applications, pertinent information about individual members of the board of directors, and a list of recent grants. Because the Taft Information System is very expensive, it is not widely available. Your library is not likely to own it, but the development office of a local college might; or contact Taft Information Service, 1000 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
The Foundation Directory. Provides information about the purposes, finances, and officers of over 5,000 foundations with assets of $500,000 or more or annual giving of $25,000 or more. Entries are updated in the Foundation Center's "Information Quarterly." Though not as informative about individual foundations as the Taft Information System, the Directory can do what Taft can't: steer you to your local foundations. And it should be available in the library or in the office of any agency that depends on foundation grants.
Foundation News. This bimonthly publication of the Council on Foundations (888 Seventh Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10019) includes a section listing, by state, grants of over $5,000 made during the previous two months. It also features articles about individual foundations, the interplay between government policies and foundation giving, etc.
Of course, there's a long way between knowing about the grants a foundation has made and receiving one yourself. The best way to approach a foundation is with a letter or brief proposal outlining clearly and succinctly why your program is needed, what it will do, how it will do it, who will do it, how much it will cost, and how long it will take. Inflated rhetoric about the needs of your community or your ideals is likely to carry little weight, though, because no matter how sympathetic foundation officers are with your goals, they need to know what differentiates your program from others and to glean some idea of the specific results to be produced by an investment in your work. For more detailed advice on proposal writing, see:
"What Makes a Good Proposal?" by F. Lee and Barbara L. Jacquette, Foundation News, Jan./Feb. 1973, pp. 18–21. Written by the treasurer of the Carnegie Corporation and an officer of the Foundation for Child Development, this invaluable article outlines the features of a good proposal and some of the criteria used by foundations in assessing proposals.
The Bread Game: The Realities of Foundation Fund Raising, $2.95. A paperback available at some bookstores or from Glide Publications, 330 Ellis Street, San Francisco 94102. This simple and step-by-step guide is little known outside the San Francisco Bay Area, but enormously helpful.
Excerpted from Model Programs and Their Components by Stevanne Auerbach. Copyright © 2011 Stevanne Auerbach. Excerpted by permission of Openroad Integrated Media.
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Table of Contents
ContentsForeword Congressman JOHN BRADEMAS, U.S. Representative, Indiana,
1. Hustling Resources for Day Care JAMES A. LEVINE,
2. A Community Organizes for Child Care: The Portland Experience HELEN L. GORDON,
3. Organizing Services for Appalachia's Children JEAN H. BERMAN,
4. Organizing Child Care for Students — "Growing Together" KATHLEEN B. LATHAM,
5. Mirror for Advocates: The Berkeley Experience KAY MARTIN and MARY MILLMAN,
6. Organizing Counseling and Coordination: A Model for Child Care Services in Colorado MARY W. VAN VLACK, RAMON C. BLATT, PAUL T. BARNES,
7. A Plan for the Health Care of Children ANN DE HUFF PETERS,
8. Health Consultation in Child Care SUSAN S. ARONSON,
9. Planning Health Services in Child Care MARILYN CHOW,
10. A Psychologist's View of Comprehensive Services DOROTHY NASH SHACK,
11. The Role of the Social Worker in Child Care DAVID BROWN,
12. The Implications of Piaget's Theory for Day-Care Education KEITH R. ALWARD,
13. Providing Food Services LINDA REGELE-SINCLAIR,
14. The Organization of Day Care: Considerations Relating to the Mental Health of Child and Family CHRISTOPH M. HEINICKE, DAVID FRIEDMAN, ELIZABETH PRESCOTT, CONCHITA PUNCEL, JUNE SOLNIT SALE,