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Modern Crystallography III: Crystal Growth by A.A. Chernov

Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri­ marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol­ ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be­ came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat­ ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res­ onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re­ markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog­ raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem­ istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas­ ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate­ rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642818370
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/08/2011
Series: Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences , #36
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
Pages: 517
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1: Crystallization Processes.- 1 Equilibrium.- 1.1 Phase Equilibrium.- 1.1.1 One-Component Systems.- 1.1.2 Multicomponent Systems.- 1.1.3 Crystallization Pressure.- 1.2 Surface Energy and Periodic Bond Chains.- 1.2.1 Surface Energy.- 1.2.2 Periodic Bond Chains and Estimates of the Surface Energy.- 1.2.3 Surface Energy Anisotropy.- 1.3 Atomic Structure of the Surface.- 1.3.1 Surface Configurations and Their Energies.- 1.3.2 Adsorption Layer.- 1.3.3 Step Roughness.- 1.3.4 Surface Roughness.- 1.4 Phase Equilibrium with Allowance for Surface Energy. Equilibrium Shape of a Crystal.- 1.4.1 Phase Equilibrium over a Curved Surface.- 1.4.2 Equilibrium Shape of a Crystal.- 1.4.3 Average Detachment Work. Finding Faces of Equilibrium Shape.- 1.4.4 Experimental Observation of an Equilibrium Shape.- 2 Nucleation and Epitaxy.- 2.1 Homogeneous Nucleation.- 2.1.1 Work and Rate of Nucleation. Size and Shape of Nuclei.- 2.1.2 Critical Supersaturation and Metastability Boundary in Vapors.- 2.1.3 Nucleation in Condensed Phases.- 2.1.4 Transient Nucleation Processes.- 2.2 Heterogeneous Nucleation.- 2.2.1 Work and Rate of Nucleation. Size and Shape of Nuclei.- 2.2.2 Atomistic Picture of Nucleation. Clusters.- 2.2.3 Decoration. Initial Stages of Growth.- 2.2.4 Activity of Solid Surfaces in Melts.- 2.3 Epitaxy.- 2.3.1 Principal Manifestations.- 2.3.2 Thermodynamics.- 2.3.3 Kinetics.- 2.3.4 Misfit Dislocations and the Conditions of Pseudomorphism.- 3 Growth Mechanisms.- 3.1 Normal and Layer Growth of Crystals.- 3.1.1 Conditions of Normal and Layer Growth.- 3.1.2 Kinetic Coefficients in Normal Growth.- 3.1.3 Layer Growth and the Anisotropy of the Surface Growth Rate.- 3.2 Layer Growth in Different Phases.- 3.2.1 Growth from Vapor.- 3.2.2 Growth from Solution.- 3.2.3 Growth from the Melt.- 3.3 Layer Sources and Face Growth Rates.- 3.3.1 Nuclei.- 3.3.2 Dislocations.- 3.3.3 Kinetic Coefficient and Anisotropy of Face Growth.- 3.3.4 Experimental Data on Layer Sources.- 3.4 Morphology of a Surface Growing Layerwise.- 3.4.1 Optical Methods Used to Investigate Growth Processes and Surfaces.- 3.4.2 Steps, Vicinal Hillocks, and the Formation of Dislocations During Vapor Growth.- 3.4.3 Kinematic Waves and Macrosteps.- 3.4.4 Surface Melting.- 4 Impurities.- 4.1 Effect of Impurities on Growth Processes.- 4.1.1 Thermodynamics and Structure of Solutions.- 4.1.2 Adsorption.- 4.1.3 Dependences of Growth and Morphology on the Concentration of Impurities.- 4.2 Trapping of Impurities: Classification and Thermodynamics..- 4.2.1 Classification.- 4.2.2 Thermodynamics.- 4.2.3 Equilibrium Impurity Distribution in a Crystal-Melt System.- 4.2.4 Equilibrium Impurity Distribution in a Crystal-Solution System.- 4.2.5 Equilibrium in the Surface Layer.- 4.2.6 Mutual Effects of Impurity Particles.- 4.3 Trapping of Impurities: Kinetics.- 4.3.1 Surface Processes.- a) Statistical Selection.- b) Diffusional Relaxation.- c) Sectorial Structure.- d) Vicinal Sectoriality.- e) Rapid Diffusionless Crystallization.- 4.3.2 Pulse Annealing.- 4.3.3 Diffusion in the Mother Medium.- 4.3.4 Observed Distribution Coefficients.- 5 Mass and Heat Transport. Growth Shapes and Their Stability.- 5.1 Mass and Heat Transfer in Crystallization.- 5.1.1 Stagnant Solution. Kinetic and Diffusion Regimes.- 5.1.2 Stirred Solution. Summation of Resistances.- 5.1.3 Kinetic and Diffusion Regimes in the Melt.- 5.1.4 Diffusion Field of a Polyhedron.- 5.2 Growth Shapes.- 5.2.1 Kinematics.- 5.2.2 Determination of Crystal Habit by the PBC Method.- 5.2.3 The Bravais-Donnay-Harker Rule.- 5.2.4 Effect of Growth Conditions.- 5.2.5 Faceting Effect.- 5.3 Stability of Growth Shapes.- 5.3.1 Sphere.- 5.3.2 Polyhedron.- 5.3.3 Plane.- 6 Creation of Defects.- 6.1 Inclusions.- 6.1.1 Inclusions of the Mother Liquor.- 6.1.2 Inclusions of Foreign Particles.- 6.2 Dislocations, Internal Stresses and Grain Boundaries.- 6.2.1 Dislocations from a Seed.- 6.2.2 Creation of Dislocations in Surface Processes.- 6.2.3 Orientation of Dislocations.- 6.2.4 Thermal Stresses.- 6.2.5 Dislocations Related to Vacancies and Impurities.- 6.2.6 Grain Boundaries.- 7 Mass Crystqllization.- 7.1 Solidification Kinetics and Grain Size.- 7.2 Geometric Selection and Ingot Formation.- 7.3 Heat and Mass Transfer.- 7.4 Ripening (Coalescence).- 7.5 Principles of Industrial Crystallization of Nonmetals.- 2: The Growing Of Crystals.- 8 Growth from the Vapor Phase.- 8.1 Overview.- 8.2 The Physicochemical Bases of Crystallization from the Vapor Phase.- 8.2.1 Surface Activity and the Preparation of Substrates and Seeds.- 8.2.2 Particle Flux Density in a Molecular Beam. Concentration of the Substance in the Medium.- 8.2.3 Structural Perfection of Crystals. Minimal, Maximal, and Optimal Supersaturations. Epitaxial Temperature.- 8.2.4 Heteroepitaxial Growth.- 8.2.5 Oriented Crystallization on Amorphous Substrates.- 8.3 Physical Vapor Deposition.- 8.3.1 Molecular-Beam Method.- 8.3.2 Cathode Sputtering.- 8.3.3 Vapor Phase Crystallization in a Closed System.- 8.3.4 Gas Flow Crystallization.- 8.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD).- 8.4.1 Chemical Transport.- 8.4.2 Vapor Decomposition Methods.- 8.4.3 Vapor-Synthesis Methods.- 8.5 Externally Assisted Vapor Growth.- 8.6 Crystallization from the Vapor via a Liquid Zone.- 8.6.1 A General Description of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth Mechanism (VLS).- 8.6.2 Growth Kinetics by the VLS Process.- 8.6.3 The VLS Mechanism and Basic Regularities in Whisker Growth.- 8.6.4 Controlled Growth of Whiskers.- 8.6.5 The Role of the VLS Mechanism in the Growth of Platelets, Epitaxial Films, and Bulk Crystals and in Crystal Vaporization.- 9 Growth from Solutions.- 9.1 The Physicochemical Basis of Growth from Solutions.- 9.1.1 Thermodynamic Conditions and Classification of the Methods.- 9.1.2 Mechanisms of Growth from Solutions.- 9.2 Growth from Low-Temperature Aqueous Solutions.- 9.2.1 Methods of Growing Crystals from Low-Temperature Aqueous Solutions.- a) Crystallization by Changing the Solution Temperature.- b) Temperature-Difference Methods.- c) Crystallization by Concentration-Induced Convection.- d) Crystallization by Solvent Evaporation.- e) Growth from Aqueous Solutions at a Constant Temperature and a Constant Supersaturation.- f) Crystallization by Chemical Reaction.- g) Growth in Gel Media.- h) Crystallization by Electrochemical Reaction.- 9.2.2 Growth of KDP and ADP Crystals.- 9.3 Growth and Synthesis in Hydrothermal Solutions.- 9.3.1 Methods of Growing Crystals from Hydrothermal Solutions.- a) Temperature-Difference Method.- b) Temperature-Reduction Technique.- c) “Metastable-Phase” Technique.- 9.3.2 Equipment for Hydrothermal Crystal Growth.- 9.3.3 Hydrothermal Solutions. Solvent Characteristics.- 9.3.4 Interaction of the Crystallizing Substance with the Solvent.- 9.3.5 Hydrothermal Growth of Crystals.- 9.3.6 Defects and Methods for Their Elimination in Crystals Grown Hydrothermally.- 9.3.7 Some Crystals Grown by the Hydrothermal Method.- 9.4 Growing from High-Temperature Solutions (Flux Growth).- 10 Growth from the Melt.- 10.1 The Physicochemical Bases of Growing Single Crystals from the Melt.- 10.1.1 State of the Melt.- 10.1.2 Container Material.- 10.1.3 Crystallization Atmosphere.- 10.2 Principal Methods of Growing Single Crystals from the Melt.- 10.2.1 Kyropoulos and Czochralski Methods.- 10.2.2 Stockbarger-Bridgman Method.- 10.2.3 Verneuil Method.- 10.2.4 Zone Melting.- 10.2.5 Heat Transfer in Crystal and Melt.- 10.2.6 Temperature Control and Stabilization Systems.- 10.2.7 The Automatic Control System for Growing Single Crystals.- 10.2.8 Choosing a Method for Crystal Growth.- 10.3 Defects in Crystals Grown from the Melt and Ways to Control the Real Structure of Grown Crystals.- 10.3.1 Foreign Inclusions.- 10.3.2 Impurities.- 10.3.3 Residual Stresses, Dislocations, and Grain Boundaries.- List of Symbols.- References.- Materials Index.

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