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The definitive resource for electroplating, now completely up to date
With advances in information-age technologies, the field of electroplating has seen dramatic growth in the decade since the previous edition of Modern Electroplating was published. This expanded new edition addresses these developments, providing a comprehensive, one-stop reference to the latest methods and applications of electroplating of metals, alloys, semiconductors, and conductive polymers.
With special emphasis on electroplating and electrochemical plating in nanotechnologies, data storage, and medical applications, the Fifth Edition boasts vast amounts of new and revised material, unmatched in breadth and depth by any other book on the subject. It includes:
- Easily accessible, self-contained contributions by over thirty experts
- Five completely new chapters and hundreds of additional pages
- A cutting-edge look at applications in nanoelectronics
- Coverage of the formation of nanoclusters and quantum dots using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)
- An important discussion of the physical properties of metal thin films
- Chapters devoted to methods, tools, control, and environmental issues
- And much more
A must-have for anyone in electroplating, including technicians, platers, plating researchers, and metal finishers, Modern Electroplating, Fifth Edition is also an excellent reference for electrical engineers and researchers in the automotive, data storage, and medical industries.
Read an Excerpt
In planning this new edition of Modern Electroplating, we have realized from thestart that it would be impossible to include in one volume both the fundamental aspects and the technology itself. For this reasons we have decided to publish the recent developments in the science of deposition in a separate volume titled Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition. That volume was published in November 1998. Therefore, the present volume includes only a brief summary of fundamental technological advancements, and this is presented in the first, introductory chapter.
Since the last edition of Modern Electroplating in 1975, electrochemical deposition has evolved from an ill-defined area, as the Preface to the previous edition calls it, into an exact science. This development is, in the first place, seen as responsible for the ever-increasing number and widening types of applications of this branch of practical science and engineering.
The most significant developments in any field of science or technology in general, and in electrochemistry in particular, are made by those only who possess a good understanding of the fundamental aspects of the discipline, which in this case is electrochemical deposition. We, the editors, found it necessary and highly desirable to seek and present to the reader a companion volume that, for all intents and purposes, makes essentially a completely new contribution and not just a revised version of the earlier editions. Thus, for the sake of illustration, the present edition includes a chapter devoted to the electrodeposition of semiconductors. Another deals with environmental issues. Last, but not least, in this connection, neither of the editors nor the vast majority of the contributors were associated with any of the earlier editions.
Technological areas in which the possession of technical knowledge of electroplating is found to be essential include all aspects of electronics; macro-, micro-, and nano-optics; opto-electronics; and sensors of most types. In addition, a number of key industries, such as the automotive industry, employ methods of electroplating. This is so even when other methods such as evaporation and sputtering CVD (chemical vapor deposition) are an option. Electroplating is therefore often used for reasons of economy and/or convenience.
This volume is divided into 26 chapters. After a three-part introductory chapter by Paunovic, Schlesinger, and Weil come 13 chapters dealing with the electrodeposition of copper (Dini), nickel (DiBari), gold (Kohl), silver (Schlesinger), tin (Abys et al.), chromium (Snyder et al.), lead and alloys (Jordan), tin-lead alloys (Jordan), zinc and alloys (Winand), iron and alloys (Izaki), palladium and alloys (Abys et al.), nickel and cobalt alloys (DiBari), and semiconductors (T.E. Schlesinger). Closing this series of chapters is one on deposition on nonconductors (Schlesinger), and conductive polymers (Osaka et al.). Next come 6 chapters dealing with electroless deposition of copper (Paunovic), nickel (Schlesinger), cobalt (Osaka), palladium and platinum (Ohno), gold (Okinaka), and electroless alloys (Ohno). Finally, 4 chapters close the book, and these are on preparation for deposition (Dexter Snyder), manufacturing technologies (Turner), manufacturing control (Turner), and environmental considerations (Tomkiewicz).
In the preface to Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition we stated that it may be considered a lucky coincidence that this volume is published close to the time that copper interconnection technology is introduced in the microelectronic industry. This is still the case. There has been a truly revolutionary change from physical to electrochemical techniques in the production of microconductors on silicon, and developments in electrochemical deposition are bound to generate and maintain in the twenty-first century an increased interest and urgent need for up-to-date information regarding the technology. The present volume together with the Fundamentals volume should be of great help in understanding these advancements.
The chapters were written by different authors and so differences in style and approach will be evident. We the editors have tried to smooth those differences without changing the basic message present in each chapter. We also intend this volume to be a useful reference for practitioners of deposition as well as for individuals who are about to enter this modern ever-evolving field of practical knowledge. For this reason each chapter is complete and may be read and consulted separately, and certainly the book can be read in any order.
Our thanks and heartfelt gratitude go to many members of the Electrochemical Society and in particular to those of the Electrodeposition Division. Our thanks also go to our respective families for their patience and understanding during the hectic long hours we spent in preparing this volume.
MORDECHAY ORDECHAY SCHLESINGER CHLESINGER
Windsor Ontario, Canada
MILAN ILAN PAUNOVIC AUNOVIC
Yorktown Heights, New York
Table of Contents
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY SERIES.
1 Fundamental Considerations (Milan Paunovic, Mordechay Schlesinger, and Dexter D. Snyder).
2 Electrodeposition of Copper (Jack W. Dini and Dexter D. Snyder).
3 Electrodeposition of Nickel (George A. Di Bari).
4 Electrodeposition of Gold (Paul A. Kohl).
5 Electroless and Electrodeposition of Silver (Mordechay Schlesinger).
6 Tin and Tin Alloys for Lead-Free Solder (Yun Zhang).
7 Electrodeposition of Chromium (Nenad V. Mandich and Donald L. Snyder).
8 Electrodeposition of Lead and Lead Alloys (Manfred Jordan).
9 Electrodeposition of Tin/Lead Alloys (Manfred Jordan).
10 Electrodeposition of Zinc and Zinc Alloys (Ren Winand).
11 Electrodeposition of Iron and Iron Alloys (Masanobu Izaki).
12 Palladium Electroplating (Joseph A. Abys).
13 Electrochemical Deposition Process for ULSI Interconnection Devices (Tetsuya Osaka and Masahiro Yoshino).
14 Electrodeposition of Semiconductors (T. E. Schlesinger, K. Rajeshwar, and N. R. De Tacconi).
15 Deposition on Nonconductors (Mordechay Schlesinger).
16 Conductive Polymers: Electroplating of Organic Films (Tetsuya Osaka, Shinichi Komaba, and Toshiyuki Momma).
17 Electroless Deposition of Copper (Milan Paunovic).
18 Electroless Deposition of Nickel (Mordechay Schlesinger).
19 Electrochemical Synthesis of Metal Alloys for Magnetic Recording Systems (Atsushi Sugiyama, Masahiro Yoshino, Takuma Hachisu, and Tetsuya Osaka).
20 Electroless Deposition of Palladium and Platinum (Izumi Ohno).
21 Electroless Deposition of Gold (Yutaka Okinaka and Masaru Kato).
22 Electroless Deposition of Alloys (Izumi Ohno).
23 Preparation for Deposition (Dexter D. Snyder).
24 Manufacturing Tools (Tom Ritzdorf).
25 Monitoring and Control (Tom Ritzdorf).
26 Environmental Aspects of Electrodeposition (Micha Tomkiewicz).
27 Applications to Magnetic Recording and Microelectronic Technologies (Stanko R. Brankovic, Natasa Vasiljevic, and Nikolay Dimitrov).
28 Microelectromechanical Systems (Giovanni Zangari).
29 Analysis of Electroplated Films Using Dual-Beam FIB/SEM and TEM Techniques (Xianying Meng-Burany).
30 Ionic Liquid Treatments for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium-Based Substrates (R. Petro, M. Schlesinger, and Guang-Ling Song).
What People are Saying About This
"This expanded new edition addresses these developments, providing a comprehensive, one-stop reference to the latest methods and of electroplating of metals, alloys, semiconductors, and conductive polymers. With special emphasis on electroplating and electrochemical plating in nanotechnologies, data storage, and medical , the Fifth Edition boasts vast amounts of new and revised material, unmatched in breadth and depth by any other book on the subject." (Digital Post Production, 23 November 2010)
"With advances in information-age technologies, the field of electroplating has seen dramatic growth in the decade since the previous edition of Modern Electroplating was published. This expanded new edition addresses these developments, providing a comprehensive, one-stop reference to the latest methods and applications of electroplating of metals, alloys, semiconductors, and conductive polymers. With special emphasis on electroplating and electrochemical plating in nanotechnologies, data storage, and medical applications, the Fifth Edition boasts vast amounts of new and revised material, unmatched in breadth and depth by any other book on the subject". (GNT, 23 November 2010)