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Modern Recording Techniques / Edition 6
     

Modern Recording Techniques / Edition 6

by David Miles Huber, Robert E. Runstein
 

ISBN-10: 0240806255

ISBN-13: 9780240806259

Pub. Date: 02/04/2005

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Modern Recording Techniques is the bestselling, authoritative guide to sound and music recording. Whether you’re just starting out or are looking for a step-up in the industry, Modern Recording Techniques provides an in-depth read on the art and technologies of music production. It’s a must-have reference for all audio bookshelves. Using

Overview

Modern Recording Techniques is the bestselling, authoritative guide to sound and music recording. Whether you’re just starting out or are looking for a step-up in the industry, Modern Recording Techniques provides an in-depth read on the art and technologies of music production. It’s a must-have reference for all audio bookshelves. Using its familiar and accessible writing style, this ninth edition has been fully updated, presenting the latest production technologies and includes an in-depth coverage of the DAW, networked audio, MIDI, signal processing and much more.

A robust companion website features video tutorials, weblinks, an online glossary, flashcards, and a link to the author’s blog. Instructor resources include a testbank and an instructor’s manual.

The Ninth Edition includes:

  • Updated tips, tricks and insights for getting the best out of your studio
  • An introduction to the Apple iOS in music production
  • Introductions to new technologies and important retro studio techniques
  • The latest advancements in DAW systems, signal processing, mixing and mastering

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780240806259
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
02/04/2005
Series:
Audio Engineering Society Presents Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
672
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.99(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

THE PROFESSIONAL STUDIO ENVIRONMENT

THE PROFESSIONAL RECORDING STUDIO

THE CONTROL ROOM

THE RETRO REVOLUTION

THE CHANGING FACES OF THE MUSIC STUDIO BUSINESS

THE PROJECT STUDIO

MAKING THE PROJECT STUDIO PAY FOR ITSELF

THE PORTABLE STUDIO

THE iREVOLUTION

LIVE/ON-LOCATION RECORDING: A DIFFERENT ANIMAL

AUDIO FOR VIDEO AND FILM

AUDIO FOR GAMES

THE DJ

THE TIMES, THEY’VE ALREADY CHANGED: MULTIMEDIA & THE WEB

POWER TO THE PEOPLE!

WHATEVER WORKS FOR YOU

THE PEOPLE WHO MAKE IT ALL HAPPEN

THE ARTIST

STUDIO MUSICIANS AND ARRANGERS

THE PRODUCER

THE ENGINEER

ASSISTANT ENGINEER

MAINTENANCE ENGINEER

MASTERING ENGINEER

STUDIO MANAGEMENT

MUSIC LAW

WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN THE INDUSTRY

BEHIND THE SCENES

CAREER DEVELOPMENT

SELF-MOTIVATION

NETWORKING: "SHOWING UP IS HUGE"

THE RECORDING PROCESS

THE RECORDING PROCESS

PREPARATION

THE POWER OF PREPARATION

RECORDING

OVERDUBBING

OPTIONS IN OVERDUBBING

MIXDOWN

MASTERING

PRODUCT MANUFACTURING AND/OR DOWNLOADABLE DISTRIBUTION

MARKETING AND SALES

CHAPTER 2: Sound and Hearing

THE TRANSDUCER

THE BASICS OF SOUND

WAVEFORM CHARACTERISTICS

Amplitude

Frequency

Frequency Response

Velocity

Wavelength

Reflection of Sound

Diffraction of Sound

Phase

Phase Shift

Harmonic Content

Envelope

LOUDNESS LEVELS: THE DECIBEL

LOGARITHMIC BASICS

THE DECIBEL

Sound-Pressure Level

Voltage

Power

The "Simple" Heart of the Matter

THE EAR

THRESHOLD OF HEARING

THRESHOLD OF FEELING

THRESHOLD OF PAIN

TAKING CARE OF YOUR HEARING

PSYCHOACOUSTICS

Auditory Perception

Beats

Combination Tones

Masking

Perception of Direction

Perception of Space

Direct Sound

Early Reflections

Reverberation

CHAPTER 3: Studio Acoustics and Design

STUDIO TYPES

THE PROFESSIONAL RECORDING STUDIO

THE AUDIO-FOR-VISUAL PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

THE AUDIO-FOR-GAMING PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

THE PROJECT STUDIO

PRIMARY FACTORS GOVERNING STUDIO AND CONTROL ROOM ACOUSTICS

ACOUSTIC ISOLATION

Walls

Floors

Risers

CEILINGS

WINDOWS AND DOORS

ISO-ROOMS AND ISO-BOOTHS

Acoustic Partitions

Noise Isolation within the Control Room

SYMMETRY IN CONTROL ROOM DESIGN

FREQUENCY BALANCE

Reflections

Absorption

High-Frequency Absorption

Low-Frequency Absorption

ROOM REFLECTIONS AND ACOUSTIC REVERBERATION

ACOUSTIC ECHO CHAMBERS

CHAPTER 4: Microphones: Design and Application

MICROPHONE DESIGN

THE DYNAMIC MICROPHONE

THE RIBBON MICROPHONE

Further Developments in Ribbon Technology

THE CONDENSER MICROPHONE

Powering a Condenser Mic

External Power Supply

Phantom Power

The Electret-condenser Microphone

MICROPHONE CHARACTERISTICS

DIRECTIONAL RESPONSE

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

Sensitivity Rating

Equivalent Noise Rating

Overload Characteristics

Microphone Impedance

BALANCED/UNBALANCED LINES

MICROPHONE PREAMPS

MICROPHONE TECHNIQUES

OTHER MICROPHONE PICKUP ISSUES

Low Frequency Rumble

Proximity effect

Popping

Off-axis pickup

PICKUP CHARACTERISTICS AS A FUNCTION OF WORKING DISTANCE

Close Microphone Placement

Leakage

Recording Direct

Distant Microphone Placement

Room Microphone Placement

Room Pickup in the studio

The Boundary Effect

"Reamping it" in the Mix

Accent Microphone Placement

STEREO AND IMMERSIVE MIC TECHNIQUES

Spaced Pair

X/Y

M/S

Decca Tree

Surround Miking Techniques

Surround Decca Tree

MICROPHONE PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES

BRASS INTRUMENTS

Trumpet

Trombone

Tuba

French Horn

GUITAR

Acoustic Guitar

Miking Near the Sound Hole

Room and Surround Guitar Miking

The Electric Guitar

Miking the Guitar Amp

Recording Direct

The Electric Bass Guitar

KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS

Grand Piano

Separation

Upright Piano

Electronic Keyboard Instruments

PERCUSSION

Drum Set

Miking the Drum Set

Kick Drum

Snare Drum

Overheads

Rack-Toms

Floor-Tom

Hi-Hat

TUNED PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS

Congas and Hand Drums

Xylophone, Vibraphone and Marimba

STRINGED INSTRUMENTS

Violin and Viola

Cello

Double Bass

VOICE

Mic Tools for the Voice

WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS

Clarinet

Flute

Saxophone

HARMONICA

MICROPHONE SELECTION

SHURE SM57

TELEFUNKEN M81

AKG D112

ROYER LABS R-121

BEYERDYNAMIC M-160

AEA A440

SHURE PGA181

AKG C214

NEUMANN TLM102

ADK Z-251

TOWNSEND LABS SPHERE L22™

TELEFUNKEN U47, C12 AND ELA M251E

CHAPTER 5: The Analog Tape Recorder

TO COMMIT OR NOT TO COMMIT IT TO TAPE?

MAGNETIC RECORDING AND ITS MEDIA

THE PROFESSIONAL ANALOG ATR

The Tape Transport

The Magnetic Tape Head

Equalization

Bias Current

Monitoring Modes

TO PUNCH OR NOT TO PUNCH

TAPE, TAPE SPEED AND HEAD CONFIGURATIONS

Print-Through

Analog Tape Noise

Cleanliness

Degaussing

EDITING MAGNETIC TAPE

BACKUP AND ARCHIVE STRATEGIES

Backing Up Your Analog Project

Archive Strategies

C.L.A.S.P.

TAPE EMULATION PLUG-INS

CHAPTER 6: Digital Audio Technology

THE LANGUAGE OF DIGITAL

DIGITAL BASICS

Sampling

Quantization

THE DEVIL’S IN THE DETAILS

The Nyquist Theorem

Oversampling

Signal-to-Error Ratio

Dither

Fixed- vs. Floating-Point Processing

THE DIGITAL RECORDING/REPRODUCTION PROCESS

THE RECORDING PROCESS

THE PLAYBACK PROCESS

SOUNDFILE BASICS

SOUNDFILE SAMPLE RATES

SOUNDFILE BIT DEPTHS

PROFESSIONAL SOUNDFILE FORMATS

REGARDING DIGITAL AUDIO LEVELS

DIGITAL AUDIO TRANSMISSION

AES/EBU

S/PDIF

SCMS

MADI

ADAT LIGHTPIPE

TDIF

SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION

WHAT IS JITTER?

WORDCLOCK

CHAPTER 7: The Digital Audio Workstation

INTEGRATION NOW ... INTEGRATION FOREVER!

DAW HARDWARE

THE DESKTOP COMPUTER

THE LAPTOP COMPUTER

SYSTEM INTERCONNECTIVITY

USB

FIREWIRE

THUNDERBOLT

AUDIO OVER ETHERNET

THE AUDIO INTERFACE

AUDIO DRIVER PROTOCOLS

LATENCY

NEED ADDITIONAL I/O?

DAW CONTROLLERS

HARDWARE CONTROLLERS

INSTRUMENT CONTROLLERS

TOUCH CONTROLLERS

LARGE-SCALE CONTROLLERS

SOUND FILE FORMATS

SOUNDFILE SAMPLE AND BIT RATES

SOUNDFILE INTERCHANGE AND COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN DAWS

DAW SOFTWARE

SOUND RECORDING AND EDITING

FIXING SOUND WITH A SONIC SCALPEL

COMPING

MIDI SEQUENCING AND SCORING

SUPPORT FOR VIDEO AND PICTURE SYNC

REAL-TIME, ON-SCREEN MIXING

DSP EFFECTS

DSP PLUG-INS

Accelerator Processing Systems

Fun with Effects

Equalization

Dynamics

Delay

Pitch and Time Change

REWIRE

MIXDOWN AND EFFECTS AUTOMATION

EXPORTING A FINAL MIXDOWN TO FILE

POWER TO THE PROCESSOR ... UHHH, PEOPLE!

GET A COMPUTER THAT’S POWERFUL ENOUGH

MAKE SURE YOU HAVE ENOUGH FAST MEMORY

KEEP YOUR PRODUCTION MEDIA SEPARATE

UPDATE YOUR DRIVERS … WITH CAUTION!

GOING (AT LEAST) DUAL MONITOR

KEEPING YOUR COMPUTER QUIET

BACKUP, ARCHIVE AND NETWORKING STRATEGIES

Computer Networking

SESSION DOCUMENTATION

Documenting Within the DAW

Make Documentation Directories

ACCESSORIES AND ACCESSORIZE

IN CLOSING

CHAPTER 8: Groove Tools and Techniques

THE BASICS

PITCH SHIFT ALGORYTHMS

Warping

BEAT SLICING

AUDIO TO MIDI

GROOVE HARDWARE

GROOVE SOFTWARE

LOOPING YOUR DAW

LOOP-BASED AUDIO SOFTWARE

ReWire

Groove and loop-based plug-ins

Drum and drum loop plug-ins

PULLING LOOPS INTO A DAW SESSION

GROOVE CONTROLLERS

DJ SOFTWARE

OBTAINING LOOP FILES FROM THE GREAT DIGITAL WELLSPRING

CHAPTER 9: MIDI and Electronic Music Technology

THE POWER OF MIDI

MIDI PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTS

WHAT IS MIDI?

WHAT MIDI ISN’T

SYSTEM INTERCONNECTIONS

THE MIDI CABLE

MIDI Phantom Power

Wireless MIDI

MIDI JACKS

MIDI Echo

TYPICAL CONFIGURATIONS

The daisy chain

The Multiport Network

EXPLORING THE SPEC

THE MIDI MESSAGE

MIDI channels

MIDI modes

Channel Voice Messages

EXPLANATION OF CONTROLLER ID PARAMETERS

SYSTEM MESSAGES

MIDI AND THE COMPUTER

CONNECTING TO THE PERIPHERAL WORLD

The MIDI Interface

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS

INSIDE THE TOYS

Instrument and Systems Plug-Ins

KEYBOARDS

The Synth

SAMPLERS

Sample Libraries and DIY Sampling

THE MIDI KEYBOARD CONTROLLER

PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLLERS

The Drum Machine

Midi Drum Controllers

Drum Replacement

OTHER MIDI INSTRUMENT AND CONTROLLER TYPES

SEQUENCING

INTEGRATED HARWARE SEQUENCERS

SOFTWARE SEQUENCERS

BASIC INTRODUCTION TO SEQUENCING

RECORDING

Setting a Session Tempo

Changing Tempo

Click track

Multitrack MIDI Recording

Punching in and out

Step Time Entry

Drum Pattern Entry

MIDI TO AUDIO

AUDIO TO MIDI

SAVING YOUR MIDI FILES

DOCUMENTATION

EDITING

Practical Editing Techniques

Transposition

Quantization

Humanizing

Slipping In Time

Editing controller values

PLAYBACK

MIXING A SEQUENCE

MUSIC PRINTING PROGRAMS

CHAPTER 10: The iOS in Music Production

AUDIO INSIDE THE iOS

CORE AUDIO ON THE iOS

AUDIOBUS

AUDIO UNITS FOR THE iOS

CONNECTING THE iOS TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD

AUDIO CONNECTIVITY

MIDI CONNECTIVITY

RECORDING USING iOS

HANDHELD RECORDING USING iOS

MIXING WITH iOS

iDAWS

TAKING CONTROL OF YOUR DAW USING THE iOS

THE iOS ON STAGE

IOS AND THE DJ

iOS AS A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

THE ABILITY TO ACCESSORIZE

CHAPTER 11: Multimedia and the Web

THE MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENT

THE COMPUTER

TELEVISION AND THE HOME THEATER

DELIVERY MEDIA

NETWORKING

THE WEB

The Cloud

PHYSICAL MEDIA

THE CD

THE DVD

BLURAY

THE FLASH CARD AND MEMORY USB STICK

MEDIA DELIVERY FORMATS

UNCOMPRESSED SOUNDFILE FORMATS

PCM Audiofile Formats

DSD Audio

COMPRESSED CODEC SOUNDFILE FORMATS

Perceptual Coding

MP3

MP4

WMA

AAC

FLAC

Tagged metadata

MIDI

STANDARD MIDI FILES

GENERAL MIDI

GRAPHICS

VIDEO

MULTIMEDIA IN THE "NEED FOR SPEED" ERA

ON A FINAL NOTE

CHAPTER 12: Synchronization

TIMECODE

TIMECODE WORD

Sync Information Data

Timecode Frame Standards

TIMECODE WITHIN DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCTION

Broadcast Wave File Format

MIDI TIMECODE

MIDI Timecode Messages

SMPTE/MTC Conversion

TIMECODE PRODUCTION IN THE ANALOG AUDIO AND VIDEO WORLDS

TIMECODE REFRESH AND JAM SYNC

SYNCHRONIZATION USING SMPTE TIMECODE

SMPTE OFFSET TIMES

DISTRIBUTION OF SMPTE SIGNALS

Timecode Levels

REAL-WORLD APPLICATIONS USING TIMECODE AND MIDI TIMECODE

Master/Slave Relationship

Video’s Need for a Stable Timing Reference

Digital Audio’s Need for a Stable Timing Reference

Video Workstation or Recorder

Digital Audio Workstations

Routing Timecode to and from Your Computer

Analog Audio Recorders

A Simple Caveat

KEEPING OUT OF TROUBLE

CHAPTER 13: Amplifiers

AMPLIFICATION

THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Preamplifiers

Equalizers

SUMMING AMPLIFIERS

DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIERS

POWER AMPLIFIERS

VOLTAGE- AND DIGITALLY CONTROLLED AMPLIFIERS

CHAPTER 14: Power- and Ground-Related Issues

GROUNDING CONSIDERATIONS

POWER CONDITIONING

MULTIPLE-PHASE POWER

Balanced Power

HUM, RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) AND ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INDUCTION (EMI)

CHAPTER 15: Signal Processing

THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF ANALOG, DIGITAL OR WHATEVER

THE WHATEVER

ANALOG

Analog Recall

DIGITAL

PLUG-INS

PLUG-IN CONTROL AND AUTOMATION

SIGNAL PATHS IN EFFECTS PROCESSING

INSERT ROUTING

External Control Over An Insert Effect’s Signal Path

SEND ROUTING

VIVA LA DIFFERENCE

Side Chain Processing

EFFECTS PROCESSING

HARDWARE AND PLUG-IN EFFECTS IN ACTION

Equalization

Peaking Filters

Shelving Filters

High-Pass and Low-Pass Filters

Equalizer Types

Applying Equalization

EQ in Action!

Sound-Shaping Effects Devices And Plug-Ins

Dynamic Range

Dynamic range processors

Compression

Multiband Compression

Limiting

Expansion

The noise gate

TIME-BASED EFFECTS

Delay

Delay In Action: Less than 15 ms

Delay In Action: 15 to 35 ms

Delay In Action: More than 35 ms

Reverb

Reverb Types

Psychoacoustic enhancement

Pitch shifting

Time and pitch changes

Automatic Pitch Correction

Multiple-Effects Devices

DYNAMIC EFFECTS AUTOMATION AND EDITING

CHAPTER 16: Noise Reduction

DIGITAL NOISE REDUCTION

FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM

Restoration

SINGLE-ENDED NOISE-REDUCTION PROCESS

The Noise Gate

CHAPTER 17: The Art and Technology of Mixing

THE ART OF MIXING

LISTENING

Ear Training

PREPARATION

Fixing it in the Mix

Preparing for the Mix

Providing a Reference Track

Gain Structure

Human Factors

A REVIEW OF THE RECORDING PROCESS

RECORDING

Monitoring

OVERDUBBING

THE TECHNOLOGY OF MIXING

UNDERSTANDING THE UNDERLYING CONCEPT OF "THE MIXING SURFACE"

THE MIXER/CONSOLE INPUT STRIP

Gain Level Optimization

Channel Input (Preamp)

Auxiliary Send Section

Equalization

Dynamics Section

Monitor Section

Direct Insert Monitoring

Separate Monitor Section

Channel Fader

Output Section

Channel assignment

Grouping

Main Output Mix Bus

Monitor Level Section

Patch Bay

Metering

The Finer Points of Metering

The VU Meter

The Average/Peak Meter

DIGITAL CONSOLE AND DAW MIXER/CONTROLLER TECHNOLOGY

The Virtual Input Strip

The DAW Software Mixer Surface

Mixdown Level and Effects Automation

Write Mode

Read Mode

Drawn (Rubberband) Automation

THE FINER POINTS OF MIXING

MIXING AND BALANCING BASICS

A FINAL FOOTNOTE ON THE ART OF MIXING

CHAPTER 18: Monitoring

SPEAKER AND ROOM CONSIDERATIONS

MONITOR SPEAKER TYPES

Far-Field Monitoring

Near-Field Monitoring

Small Speakers

Headphones

Earbuds

In-Ear Monitoring

Your Car

SPEAKER DESIGN

Active Powered vs. Passive Speaker Design

SPEAKER POLARITY

BALANCING SPEAKER LEVELS

MONITORING

MONITOR LEVEL CONTROL

Monitor Volume

SPECTRAL REFERENCE

MONITORING CONFIGURATIONS IN THE STUDIO

1.0 Mono

2.0 Stereo

2+1 Stereo + sub

MONITORING IN THE RECORDING SPACE

Headphones in the Studio

Playback Speakers in the Studio

CHAPTER 19: Immersive Audio (5.1 and beyond)

IMMERSIVE AUDIO: PAST TO THE PRESENT

STEREO COMES TO TELEVISION

THEATERS HIT HOME

TODAY’S IMMERSIVE AUDIO EXPERIENCE

MIXING IN SURROUND

SURROUND HARDWARE/SOFTWARE

Surround Interfacing

Surround Channel Assignments

MONITORING IN 5.1 AND BEYOND

5.1 SPEAKER PLACEMENT AND SETUP

The LFE

Bass Management in a Surround System

Practical 5.1 Placement

5.0 Surround Minus an LFE

7.1 Speaker Placement

9.1 & 11.1 Height Channels … Adding to the Experience

Dolby Atmos

Auro Technologies Auro3D

ACTIVE/PASSIVE MONITORS IN SURROUND

NOISE CALIBRATION

DESERT ISLAND REFERENCE FILES/DISCS

SURROUND FINAL MASTERING AND DELIVERY FORMATS

UNCOMPRESSED PCM AUDIO

DOLBY DIGITAL (AC3)

DTS

MP4

FLAC

DOWNMIX/UPMIX

Down-mix from 5.1

Up-mix to 5.1

AUTHORING FOR IMMERSIVE

REISSUING BACK CATALOG MATERIAL

CHAPTER 20: Mastering

THE FINAL MIX

GETTING TOO CLOSE TO THE MIX

HIRING A PROFESSIONAL MASTERING ENGINEER

TO MASTER OR NOT TO MASTER - WAS THAT THE QUESTION?

"PRE"PARATION

PROVIDING STEMS

PROVIDING A REFERENCE TRACK

TO BE THERE, OR NOT TO BE THERE …

SEQUENCING: THE NATURAL ORDER OF THINGS

TO MASTER OR NOT TO MASTER THE PROJECT YOURSELF - THAT’S THE NEXT QUESTION!

THE ZEN OF SELF SELF-MASTERING?

Desert Island Mixes

TWO-STEP OR ONE-STEP (INTEGRATED) MASTERING OPTION

UNDERSTANDING THE SIGNAL CHAIN

MASTERING THE DETAILS OF A PROJECT

SOUNDFILE VOLUME

SOUNDFILE RESOLUTION

DITHER

RELATIVE VOLUMES

EQ

DYNAMICS

Compression in Mastering

Limiting in Mastering

Multiband Dynamic Processing in Mastering

Mid/Side Processing

MASTERING PLUG- INS

ON A FINAL NOTE

CHAPTER 21: Product Manufacture and Distribution

PRODUCT MANUFACTURE

THE CD

The CD Manufacture Process

CD burning

DVD AND BLU-RAY BURNING

OPTICAL DISC HANDLING AND CARE

VINYL

Disc Cutting

Disc-Cutting Lathe

Cutting Head

Pitch Control

The LP Mastering Process

Vinyl Disc Plating and Pressing

PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION

ONLINE DISTRIBUTION

Uploading to Stardom

Build Your Own Website

Thoughts on being (and getting heard) in cyberspace

Streaming

Free Streaming Services

Internet radio

Money for Nothin’ and the Chics …

LEGAL ISSUES

Royalties and Other Business Issues

Ownership of the Masters

Registering Your Work

Form SR

Form PA

Collecting the $$$

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 22: Studio Tips and Tricks

PREPARATION AND THE DETAILS

WHAT’S A PRODUCER AND DO YOU REALLY NEED ONE?

DO YOU NEED A MUSIC LAWYER?

A SHORT, STEP-BY-STEP OVERVIEW OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

LONG BEFORE GOING INTO THE STUDIO

BEFORE GOING INTO THE STUDIO

GOING INTO THE STUDIO

SETTING UP

SESSION DOCUMENTATION

RECORDING

MIXDOWN

MASTERING

BACKUP AND ARCHIVE STRATEGIES

HOUSEHOLD TIPS

PERSONAL SKILLS AND TOOLS

PROTECT YOUR INVESTMENT

PROTECT YOUR HARDWARE

UPDATE YOUR SOFTWARE

READ YOUR MANUALS

A WORD ON PROFESSIONALISM

IN CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 23: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

YESTERDAY

TODAY

TOMORROW

HAPPY TRAILS

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