Modulated Measurement and Engineering Systems for Microwave Power Transistors: Characterisation and Linearisation of Nonlinear Microwave Devices for Wireless Communication Systems

Modulated Measurement and Engineering Systems for Microwave Power Transistors: Characterisation and Linearisation of Nonlinear Microwave Devices for Wireless Communication Systems

by Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary


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The complexity requirements of future wireless communication systems now indeed demand a more general theoretically robust design methodology for nonlinear circuits, such as the power amplifiers. The present design methodology for nonlinear Radio Frequency components and circuits has become a key hindrance in the evaluation, development and testing of modern communication systems. The fundamental nature of this engineering challenge makes it highly unlikely to be addressed within the competitive Radio Frequency industry with short-term profitability, time to market and risk aversion considerations.

The book, therefore, includes developing advanced waveform measurement setups, multi-tone measurement techniques, characterization and modelling of nonlinear distortion in microwave power transistors and design of high-power and spectrum-efficient RF power amplifiers for future wireless communication systems. Further enlists the key impediments in Power Amplifier design through the application of waveform engineering to embrace simultaneously efficiency and linearity objectives of power amplifier design as well as investigate the most robust and appropriate behavioral model formulation that includes memory effects.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781627347143
Publication date: 04/15/2019
Pages: 344
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.72(d)

About the Author

Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at Ajman University, United Arab Emirates. He teaches various courses related to Electrical Engineering and conducts research in the broad field of Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave Engineering.

Previously, he was an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering between October 2012 and July 2018 at Ajman University, United Arab emirates and a Postdoctoral Research Associate between October 2011 and September 2012 at the Centre for High Frequency Engineering, Cardiff University, United Kingdom. While being a Postdoctoral Research Associate, he instructed undergraduate courses and supervised MSc projects and carried out commercial work for Freescale Semiconductor, Mesuro, TriQuint Semiconductor, and National Physical Laboratory.

He received the PhD degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Cardiff University, United Kingdom. For his doctoral studies, he was awarded the prestigious Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Graduate Scholarship. He is a member of Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) and a senior member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Book Motivation 1

1.2 Power Amplifiers in Modern Wireless Applications 3

1.3 Challenges in Power Amplifier Design 4

1.4 Objective of Book 5

1.5 Primary Contributions 6

1.6 Book Synopsis 9

1.7 References 12

2 Modulated Domain Measurement Systems 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Memory Effects in Power Amplifiers 16

2.2.1 Identification of Memory Effects 17

2.2.2 Sources of Memory Effects 18

2.2.3 Types of Memory Effects 19 Short Term Memory Effects 20 Long Term Memory Effects 20 Thermal and Trapping Memory Effects 21 Electrical Memory Effects 22

2.3 Modulated Domain Measurements Systems 24

2.3.1 Industrial Measurement Solutions 30 The Spectrum Analyzer 30 The Vector Network Analyzer 31 The Vector Signal Analyzer 31 Large Signal Network Analyzers 32

2.4 Previous Cardiff Modulated Measurement System 32

2.4.1 Previous Modulated Measurement System Limitations 34 Triggering for Modulated Measurements 35 Post Measurement Averaging 36 Active IF Load-pull Architecture 37 Active RF Load-pull Architecture 37

2.5 Enhanced Modulated Measurement System 38

2.5.1 Necessary Measurement System Enhancements 39 Multi-tone Measurement Averaging 40 Multi-tone Measurement Software 42 Broadband Baseband Load-pull 44 Why AWG for Modulated RF Load-pull? 47 Broadband Modulated RF Load-pull 47

2.5.2 Capabilities of Enhanced Measurement System 50 Extended Dynamic Range 51 Extension of Measurement Bandwidth 53 Possible Measurement Options 54 Stitching Problem Occurrence 55

2.6 System Calibration 56

2.6.1 IF Calibration Verification 58

2.6.2 Measurement Accuracy Enhancement 61

2.7 Demonstration of Multi-tone Measurement Capability 62

2.7.1 Output Power Spectrum Comparison 64

2.8 Impedance Control Solution 67

2.8.1 Demonstration of Baseband Load-pull Capability 68

2.8.2 Demonstration of RF Load-pull Capability 73

2.8.3 Why Out-of-Band Impedance Control is Necessary? 75

2.8.4 Comprehensive Out-of-Band Impedance Control 78

2.9 Chapter Summary 79

2.10 References 80

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