Molecular Neurobiology of the Mammalian Brain

Molecular Neurobiology of the Mammalian Brain

by Patrick McGeer

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978)

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The human brain is the inner universe through which all external events are perceived. That fact alone should ensure that neuroscience will eventually receive top priority in the list of human endeavors. The brain represents the pinnacle of sophistication in the realm of living systems. Yet it is an imperfect organ, whose failures in disease processes lead to the occupation of more than half of all hospital beds and whose variable performance in the healthy state contributes in undetermined degree to the world's social problems. Every significant advance in our understanding of the brain has yielded enormous practical dividends. There is every reason to believe the future holds even greater promise. It can be said that brain research took root near the end of the last century when Ram6n y Cajal proved beyond doubt that the neuron is the basic functioning unit of the brain and Sherrington revealed its method of transmitting impulses. But it is only in the past two decades that neuroscience has been established as a recognized discipline where the anatomical, physiological, and chemical aspects of neuronal function are treated in a unified fashion. It can be anticipated that this logical advance'will allow brain research to reach new levels of sophistication. Already it has resulted in the establishment of graduate programs at dozens of universities, and the found­ ing of numerous journals devoted to reports of interdisciplinary research on the brain.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461574934
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 04/02/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1978
Pages: 648
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.06(d)

Table of Contents

I Architecture and Operation of the Nervous System.- 1 The Fine Structure of the Mammalian Brain.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 The Neuron.- 1.2.1 General Morphology.- 1.2.2 Synapse.- 1.2.3 Nucleus.- 1.2.4 Organelles.- 1.2.5 Surface Membrane of Neurons and Nerve Fibers.- 1.2.6 Pathological Changes in the Neuron.- 1.3 Neuroglial Cells.- 1.4 The Blood-Brain Barrier.- 2 Signaling in the Nervous System.- 2.1 Signaling by Nerve Impulses.- 2.2 The Nerve Impulse.- 2.3 Ionic Mechanism of the Nerve Impulse.- 2.4 Conduction of the Nerve Impulse.- 2.5 Conduction Velocity and the Myelinated Fibers.- 2.6 Metabolic Considerations.- 2.7 Impulse Propagation in Neurons: Somata and Dendrites.- 2.8 Afterpotentials.- 2.9 Repetitive Neuronal Firing.- 3 Chemical Synaptic Transmission at Peripheral Synapses.- 3.1 The Discovery of Chemical Synaptic Transmission.- 3.2 Neuromuscular Transmission.- 3.2.1 Introduction.- 3.2.2 Structural Features of the Neuromuscular Synapse.- 3.2.3 Physiological Features of the Neuromuscular Synapse.- 3.2.4 Pharmacological Properties of the Neuromuscular Synapse..- 3.2.5 Quantal Liberation of Acetylcholine.- 3.2.6 Factors Controlling Quantal Emission from the Nerve Terminal.- 3.2.7 The Essential Role of Calcium in Quantal Release.- 3.2.8 Molecular Action of Acetylcholine (ACH).- 3.2.9 Postsynaptic Events in Neuromuscular Transmission.- 3.2.10 Diagrammatic Representation of Neuromuscular Synapses..- 3.3 Transmission across the Giant Synapse of the Squid Stellate Ganglion.- 3.4 Ionic Channels across the Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Membranes of a Chemically Transmitting Synapse.- 3.5 Concluding Statements.- 4 Synaptic Transmission in the Central Nervous System.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Excitatory Synaptic Action.- 4.3 Impulse Generation by Synaptic Action.- 4.4 Inhibitory Synaptic Action.- 4.5 General Features of Transmission by Postsynaptic Action in the Brain.- 4.6 Inhibition by Reciprocal Synapses.- 4.7 Simple Neuronal Pathways in the Brain.- 4.7.1 Pathways for Ia Impulses.- 4.7.2 Renshaw Cell Pathway.- 4.7.3 Hippocampal Basket Cell Pathway.- 4.7.4 Operative Features of Inhibitory Pathways.- 4.8 Presynaptic Inhibition.- 4.9 Principles of Neuronal Operation.- II Specific Neuronal Participants and Their Physiological Actions.- 5 Cholinergic Neurons.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Anatomy of Cholinergic Neurons.- 5.3 Chemistry of Acetylcholine.- 5.3.1 Synthesis of ACh.- 5.3.2 Destruction of ACh.- 5.3.3 Storage, Release, and Turnover of ACh.- 5.4 Physiological Action of ACh and the Cholinergic Receptor.- 5.4.1 Types of Cholinergic Receptors.- 5.4.2 Metabotropic Actions of ACh.- 5.4.3 Iontophoretic Effects of ACh on Central Neurons.- 5.4.4 Separation of the ACh Receptor.- 5.4.5 Overall Central Nervous System Effects of ACh.- 5.5 Pharmacology of ACh.- 5.5.1 Nicotinic Antagonists.- 5.5.2 Muscarinic Antagonists.- 5.5.3 Nicotinic Agonists.- 5.5.4 Muscarinic Agonists.- 5.5.5 Synthesis Inhibitors.- 5.5.6 Release Inhibitors and Promoters.- 5.5.7 Anticholinesterases.- 5.6 Summary.- 6 Putative Excitatory Neurons: Glutamate and Aspartate.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Anatomy and Distribution.- 6.3 Chemistry.- 6.4 Physiology of Glutamate and Aspartate.- 6.5 Pharmacology of Glutamate and Aspartate.- 6.6 Summary.- 7 Inhibitory Amino Acid Neurons: GABA and Glycine.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Anatomical Distribution of GABA Pathways in the Brain.- 7.2.1 Cerebellar Interneurons.- 7.2.2 Hippocampus.- 7.2.3 Basal Ganglia.- 7.2.4 Spinal Cord.- 7.2.5 Olfactory Bulb.- 7.2.6 Retina.- 7.2.7 Other Systems.- 7.3 Metabolism of GABA.- 7.4 Pharmacology of GABA.- 7.4.1 Administration of Precursors.- 7.4.2 Synthesis Inhibition.- 7.4.3 Storage and Release Mechanisms.- 7.4.4 Pump Inhibition.- 7.4.5 Inhibition of Metabolism.- 7.4.6 Receptor Interaction.- 7.5 Anatomical Distribution of Glycine.- 7.6 Chemistry of Glycine.- 7.7 Pharmacology and Physiology of Glycine.- 7.8 Summary.- 8 Catecholamine Neurons.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 The Dopamine Neuron.- 8.2.1 Anatomy.- 8.2.2 Chemistry of Dopaminergic Neurons.- 8.2.3 Physiological Action of Dopamine and the Second Messenger Concept.- 8.2.4 Pharmacology of Dopamine.- 8.3 The Noradrenaline Neuron.- 8.3.1 Biochemistry of Noradrenergic Neurons.- 8.3.2 Physiology of Noradrenaline.- 8.3.3 Pharmacology of Noradrenaline.- 8.4 The Adrenergic Neuron.- 8.4.1 Biochemistry of Adrenergic Neurons.- 8.4.2 Physiology of Adrenergic Neurons.- 8.5 Summary.- 9 The Serotonin Neuron.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Anatomy of Serotonin Neurons.- 9.3 Metabolism of Serotonin.- 9.3.1 Tryptophan-5-Hydroxylase.- 9.3.2 5-Hydroxytryptophan Decarboxylase.- 9.3.3 Monoamine Oxidase.- 9.4 Control of Serotonin Synthesis.- 9.5 Physiological Actions of Serotonin.- 9.5.1 Serotonin and Sleep.- 9.5.2 Serotonin and Sex.- 9.5.3 Serotonin, Mood, and Mental Illness.- 9.5.4 Melatonin and Other Indoleamine Pathways.- 9.6 Pharmacology of Serotonin.- 9.6.1 Agents Toxic to Serotonin Neurons.- 9.6.2 Inhibitors of Tryptophan Hydroxylase.- 9.6.3 Inhibitors of 5-HTP Decarboxylase.- 9.6.4 Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase.- 9.6.5 Serotonin Pump Inhibitors.- 9.6.6 Inhibitors of Storage.- 9.6.7 Receptor Site Agonists and Antagonists.- 9.7 Summary.- 10 Promising Peptides.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Substance P.- 10.2.1 Anatomy of Substance P.- 10.2.2 Association of Substance P with Central Pathways.- 10.2.3 Chemistry and Physiology.- 10.3 Enkephalins.- 10.3.1 Anatomy of the Enkephalins.- 10.3.2 Chemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Enkephalins.- 10.4 Endorphins.- 10.5 Neurotensin.- 10.6 Carnosine.- 10.7 Angiotensin II.- 10.8 Hypophysiotropic Peptides and the Neuroendocrine System.- 10.9 Summary.- 11 Putative Transmitters and Transmitter Candidates.- 11.1 Histamine.- 11.1.1 Anatomy and Distribution of Histamine.- 11.1.2 Chemistry of Histamine.- 11.1.3 Physiology and Pharmacology of Histamine.- 11.1.4 Summary of Histamine Action.- 11.2 Amino Acids and Their Derivatives.- 11.2.1 Taurine.- 11.2.2 iV-Acetyl-L-Aspartate (NAA).- 11.2.3 Proline.- 11.2.4 Serine.- 11.3 Purine and Pyrimidine Derivatives.- 11.4 Phenethylamine Derivatives.- 11.4.1 Octopamine.- 11.4.2 p-Tyramine.- 11.5 Indoles Other Than Serotonin.- 11.5.1 N-Acetylserotonin (NAS).- 11.5.2 5-Methoxytryptamine.- 11.5.3 Tryptamine.- 11.6 Piperidine.- 11.7 Miscellaneous Transmitter Candidates.- III The Integrative Aspects of Brain Function.- 12 The Building of the Brain and Its Adaptive Capacity.- 12.1 The Building of the Brain.- 12.1.1 Introduction.- 12.1.2 The Building of the Cerebral Cortex.- 12.1.3 The Building of the Cerebellum.- 12.1.4 The Building of Brain Nuclei and the Hippocampus.- 12.2 Principles of Neuronal Recognition and Connectivity.- 12.2.1 Introduction.- 12.2.2 Chemical Sensing in the Visual Pathways of Fish, Amphibia, and Birds.- 12.2.3 Neuronal Connectivity in Mammals.- 12.2.4 Summary of Neuronal Recognition and Connectivity.- 12.3 General Conclusions.- 13 Control of Movement by the Brain.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Motor Control from the Spinal Cord and Brainstem.- 13.3 Motor Control from the Cerebral Cortex.- 13.3.1 The Motor Cortex.- 13.3.2 Cerebral Cortex Controlling Motor Cortex.- 13.3.3 Discharge of Motor Pyramidal Cells.- 13.3.4 Arrangement of Pyramidal Cells in Colonies.- 13.3.5 Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons and the Gamma Loop..- 13.3.6 Pyramidal Tract Innervation of Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons.- 13.3.7 Projection of Ia Fibers to the Cerebral Cortex.- 13.4 Motor Control by the Cerebellum.- 13.4.1 Introduction.- 13.4.2 Evidence from Cerebellar Lesions.- 13.4.3 Neuronal Structure.- 13.4.4 Neuronal Functions.- 13.4.5 Cerebrocerebellar Pathways.- 13.4.6 Cerebellospinal Connectivities.- 13.4.7 General Comments on the Cerebellum.- 13.5 Motor Control by the Basal Ganglia.- 13.5.1 Introduction.- 13.5.2 Anatomical Interconnections of the Basal Ganglia.- 13.5.3 Physiology of the Basal Ganglia.- 13.5.4 Biochemistry of the Basal Ganglia.- 13.5.5 Pharmacology of the Basal Ganglia.- 13.5.6 Summary of the Basal Ganglia.- 13.6 Synthesis of Various Neuronal Mechanisms Concerned with the Control of Voluntary Movement.- 14 Basic Behavioral Patterns.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Visceral Innervation and Feelings.- 14.3 Central Coordination of Behavior.- 14.4 Central Amines and Behavior.- 14.5 Psychoactive Drugs.- 14.5.1 Neuroleptics or Major Tranqulizers.- 14.5.2 Minor Tranquilizers or Anxiolytics.- 14.5.3 Antidepressants.- 14.5.4 Stimulants.- 14.5.5 Hallucinogenic Agents.- 14.5.6 Summary.- 14.6 The Mystery of Mental Illness.- 14.6.1 Theories of Schizophrenia.- 14.6.2 Affective Psychoses.- 14.7 Summary.- 15 Neuronal Mechanisms Involved in Learning and Memory.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Structural and Functional Changes Possibly Related to Learning and Memory.- 15.3 Motor Learning and Memory.- 15.4 The Instruction-Selection Theory of Learning in the Cerebellum.- 15.5 Cognitive Learning and Memory.- 15.6 Neural Pathways Involved in the Laying Down of Cognitive Memories According to the Instruction-Selection Theory.- 15.7 Structural Features of the Neocortex of Special Significance for the Instruction-Selection Learning Hypothesis.- 15.8 Formulation of the Instruction-Selection Hypothesis for Cognitive Learning.- 15.9 Recall of a Memory.- 15.10 Durations of Conscious Memory.- 15.11 Conclusions.- 16 Perception, Speech, and Consciousness.- 16.1 Perception.- 16.1.1 Introduction.- 16.1.2 Cutaneous Perception (Somesthesis).- 16.1.3 Visual Perception.- 16.1.4 Auditory Perception.- 16.1.5 Olfactory Perception.- 16.1.6 Emotional Coloring of Conscious Perceptions.- 16.2 The Language Centers of the Human Brain.- 16.2.1 Introduction.- 16.2.2 Aphasia.- 16.2.3 Experiments on Exposed Brains.- 16.2.4 Intracarotid Injections of Sodium Amytal.- 16.2.5 Dichotic Listening Test.- 16.2.6 Anatomical Substrates of Speech Mechanisms.- 16.3 Language and Self-Consciousness.- 16.3.1 Effects of Global Cerebral Lesions.- 16.3.2 Dominant and Minor Hemispheres.- 16.4 Relationship of Brain to Mind.- 16.4.1 Introduction.- 16.4.2 Statement of Dualist-Interactionist Hypothesis.- 16.4.3 Summary and Conclusions.- Epilogue.- References.

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