Molecular to Global Photosynthesis

Molecular to Global Photosynthesis

ISBN-10:
1860942563
ISBN-13:
9781860942563
Pub. Date:
05/28/2004
Publisher:
Imperial College Press

Hardcover

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Overview

Molecular to Global Photosynthesis

Green plants and photosynthetic organisms are the Earth's natural photoconverters of solar energy. In future, biomass and bioenergy will become increasingly significant energy sources, making a contribution both to carbon dioxide abatement and to the security, diversity and sustainability of global energy supplies. In this book, experts provide a series of authoritative chapters on the intricate mechanisms of photosynthesis and the potential for using and improving photosynthetic organisms, plants and trees to sequester carbon dioxide and to provide fuel and useful chemicals for the benefit of man.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781860942563
Publisher: Imperial College Press
Publication date: 05/28/2004
Series: Series On Photoconversion Of Solar Energy Series
Pages: 788
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 8.60(h) x 1.60(d)

Table of Contents

About the authorsxi
Prefacexix
1Photosynthesis and photoconversion1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Evolution and progress of ideas12
1.3The 'blue print' of the photosynthetic apparatus18
1.4Energy-storage efficiency of photosynthesis28
1.5Energy and chemicals from biomass34
2Light absorption and harvesting43
2.1Introduction43
2.2Theoretical aspects of energy transfer in photosynthetic antennae47
2.3General principles of organisation of light-harvesting antennae51
2.4Structural and functional basis for light absorption and harvesting53
2.5Concluding remarks81
3Electron transfer in photosynthesis117
3.1Biological electron transfer119
3.2Electron transfer in anoxygenic photosynthesis123
3.3Electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthesis141
3.4Photosynthetic electron transfer: importance of kinetics163
4Photosynthetic carbon assimilation189
4.1Environmental and metabolic role189
4.2Chloroplast and cell191
4.3C[subscript 3] photosynthesis in its relation to the photochemistry192
4.4The Calvin cycle194
4.5Autocatalysis: adding to the triose phosphate pool203
4.6Photorespiration204
4.7CO[subscript 2]-concentrating mechanisms209
4.8Survival and efficiencies of photosynthesis216
5Regulation of photosynthesis in higher plants221
5.1Anatomy, morphology and genetic basis of photosynthesis in higher plants222
5.2Adaptation of photosynthetic electron transport to excess irradiance226
5.3Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport by CO[subscript 2] and oxygen238
5.4Feedback regulation of photosynthesis239
5.5Factors limiting plant growth242
5.6Possible plant responses to future climate changes250
5.7Improving plant biomass258
6The role of aquatic photosynthesis in solar energy conversion: a geoevolutionary perspective287
6.1Introduction287
6.2From the origin of life to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis288
6.3Photophysiological adaptations to aquatic environments298
6.4Quantum yields of photosynthesis in the ocean306
6.5Net primary production in the contemporary ocean307
6.6Biogeochemical controls and consequences311
7Useful products from algal photosynthesis323
7.1Introduction323
7.2Microalgae326
7.3Macroalgae353
7.4Concluding remarks366
8Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms397
8.1Photobiological hydrogen production--a useful evolutionary oddity397
8.2Distribution and activity of H[subscript 2] photoproducers400
8.3Structure and mechanism of the enzymes catalysing H[subscript 2] production410
8.4Metabolic versatility and conditions for hydrogen evolution418
8.5Quantum and energetic efficiencies of hydrogen photoproduction422
8.6Hydrogen production biotechnology425
8.7Future prospects432
9Photoconversion and energy crops453
9.1Introduction453
9.2Why grow energy crops?455
9.3The nature of biomass475
9.4Physiological and agronomic basis of energy capture and the selection of appropriate energy crop species484
9.5Conclusions504
10The production of biofuels by thermal chemical processing of biomass521
10.1Introduction522
10.2Thermal conversion processes527
10.3Gasification529
10.4Pyrolysis564
10.5Co-processing591
10.6Economics of thermal conversion systems for electricity production599
10.7Barriers602
10.8Conclusions604
11Photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle613
11.1The contemporary carbon cycle614
11.2The modern carbon budget615
11.3Photosynthesis as a carbon storage process618
11.4Assimilation and respiration619
11.5CO[subscript 2] fertilisation621
11.6Global warming and the carbon cycle622
12Management of terrestrial vegetation to mitigate climate change629
12.1Potential carbon management activities in the forestry and land use sectors629
12.2Forests and land use in the Kyoto Protocol636
12.3Climate change management, carbon assets and liabilities639
12.4Experiences and issues arising from land use and forestry projects designed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions640
12.5Conclusions643
13Biotechnology: its impact and future prospects649
13.1Introduction649
13.2Background652
13.3Agbiotech: current applications663
13.4Transgenic crops: the future683
13.5Challenges for transgenic crops703
13.6Developing new crops715
13.7Future directions for agricultural biotechnology719
13.8Conclusions726
Appendices741
IConversion Factors741
IIAcronyms and Abbreviations742
IIIList of Symbols745
Index747

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