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From the tropical islands of Hawaii to the frozen continent of Antarctica, mountains and valleys are found throughout the world. Encompassing the highest and lowest places on Earth, each mountain and valley was shaped over hundreds of millions of years by geologic forces. Some features were built by lava, while others rose along the same fault lines that cause earthquakes. Even the most famous mountains and valleys recognized today are changing slowly over time, sculpted by water, wind, and ice. Mountains and Valleys explains how a volcanic island is born under the sea, why Mount Everest is still growing, and what might happen when Africa's greatest valley cracks apart.
Table of Contents
1 What Is a Mountain? 7
2 How the Land Changes Shape 17
3 Folded Mountains and Volcanoes 27
4 Ocean Ridges and Rift Valleys 36
5 Fault-block Mountains and Their Valleys 46
6 Weathering and Erosion 56
7 The Power of Ice 67
8 Mapping the Future 78
Further Reading 104
Picture Credits 107
About the Author 112