This book intends to assemble reviews on the progress in defining and controlling the spatiotemporal organization of key events in immune cell activation. Improved understanding of MIRR-mediated signaling has a number of potential practical applications, from the rational design of drugs and vaccines to the engineering of cells for biotechnological purposes. In Section 1, spatial organization and physiological function of the MIRR family members such as T cell receptor (TCR), B cell receptor (BCR), Fc receptors, natural killer (NK) cell receptors, and platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) will be reviewed. Section 2 will focus on current models of MIRR-triggering and highlight modern technologies to visualize cell-cell interaction contacts such as immunological synapse and to measure protein-protein interactions in space in real time. Potential therapeutic strategies targeting the MIRR-mediated transmembrane signal transduction will be shortly reviewed in Section 3. This book will summarize our current knowledge in this field and illustrate how control of the MIRR-triggered signaling could become a potential target of medical intervention, thus bridging basic and clinical immunology.
About the Author
ALEXANDER SIGALOV, PhD, is a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. His main research interests include protein intrinsic disorder and oligomericity in the context of transmembrane signal transduction, the molecular mechanisms underlying immune receptor-mediated signaling and ways to control these processes and thus to modulate the immune response, as well as the development and applications of novel targets and strategies for innovative immune therapy. He discovered and investigated a very unusual and unique biophysical phenomenon, the homooligomerization of intrinsically disordered proteins, thus providing the first evidence for the existence of specific interactions between unfolded protein molecules. In the field of immunology, he unraveled a long-standing mystery of transmembrane signaling and immune cell activation triggered by multichain immune recognition receptors. Later, he developed a novel concept of platelet inhibition and invented a novel class of platelet inhibitors. In the field of immune therapy, he proposed new therapeutic strategies for a variety of malignancies and immune disorders, including immunodeficiencies, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, allergy and HIV. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Biophysical Society, USA. Alexander Sigalov received his academic degrees (MSc in Chemistry and a PhD in Organic Chemistry) from Moscow State University, Russia.
Table of ContentsForeword; William Paul Preface; Alexander B. Sigalov Section I. MIRRs: Structure and Physiological Function 1. T-Cell Receptor; Jose M. Rojo, Raquel Bello and Pilar Portolés Abstract Introduction Minimal Components and Stoichiometry of the TCR/CD3 Complex TCR Clusters on the Cell Surface Topology of Chain Interactions within TCR/CD3 Complexes Interactions between the TCR and AntigenRole of CD4 and CD8 Coreceptors Other TCRs Are All TCRs Equal, or Are Some TCRs More Equal Than Others? Future Directions 2. B-Cell Receptor; Randall J. Brezski and John G. Monroe Abstract Introduction Structure of the BCR B-Cell Development Molecular Aspects of Ligand-Induced BCR Signal Transduction Membrane Compartmentalization of the BCR Balance between Positive and Negative Regulators of BCR Signaling Ligand-Independent BCR-Induced Tonic Signaling Conclusion 3. Fc Receptors; Maree S. Powell and P. Mark Hogarth Abstract Introduction Human receptors for immunoglobulin Interaction between Fc receptor and immunoglobulin Spatial organization of FcRs Physiological function of Fc receptors Concluding comments 4. Natural Killer Cell Receptors; Roberto Biassoni Abstract Introduction Inhibitory Receptors Activating Receptors Conclusions 5. Platelet Glycoprotein VI; Stephanie M. Jung and Masaaki Moroi Abstract Introduction Structure of GPVI Interaction of GPVI with collagen GPVI-mediated signal transduction Physiological Function of GPVI Summary and perspectives Section II. MIRR Signaling:Possible Mechanisms and the Techniques to Study and Visualize 6. Clustering Models; Wolfgang W.A. Schamel and Michael Reth Abstract Introduction Homoclustering Heteroclustering Pseudodimer Model Homo- and Heteroclustering and Lipid Rafts The PreTCR and PreBCR 7. Segregation Models; Elaine P. Dopfer, Mahima Swamy, Gabrielle M. Siegers, Eszter Molnar, Jianying Yang and Wolfgang W.A. Schamel Abstract Introduction Lipid Rafts Segregation by Raft Clustering Kinetic-Segregation Model Immune Synapse and Microclusters 8. Kinetic Proofreading Model; Byron Goldstein, Daniel Coombs, James R. Faeder and William S. Hlavacek Abstract Introduction Kinetic proofreading illustrated through FceRI signaling The extent of kinetic proofreading in FceRI signaling Some responses may escape kinetic proofreading McKeithan’s mathematical formulation T-Cell activation and the competition between kinetic proofreading and serial engagement Concluding remarks 9. Serial Triggering Model; Jacob Rachmilewitz Abstract T-Cell Receptor Signaling Cascade Serial Triggering Model Flexible and hierarchical T-Cell Activation Thresholds Temporal Summation as a mechanism for Signal Integration Summary 10. Conformational Model; Ruth M. Risueño, Angel R. Ortiz and Balbino Alarcón Abstract Introduction Evidence in Favour of Conformational Changes in MIRRs Consequences for Ligand Recognition Model for Transmission of Conformational Changes Conclusions 11. Permissive Geometry Model; Susana Minguet and Wolfgang W.A. Schamel Abstract Introduction The clustering model of