This unique anthology assembles primary documents chronicling the development of the phonograph, film sound, and the radio. These three sound technologies shaped Americans' relation to music from the late nineteenth century until the end of the Second World War, by which time the technologies were thoroughly integrated into everyday life. There are more than 120 selections between the collection's first piece, an article on the phonograph written by Thomas Edison in 1878, and its last, a column advising listeners "desirous of gaining more from music as presented by the radio." Among the selections are articles from popular and trade publications, advertisements, fan letters, corporate records, fiction, and sheet music. Taken together, the selections capture how the new sound technologies were shaped by developments such as urbanization, the increasing value placed on leisure time, and the rise of the advertising industry. Most importantly, they depict the ways that the new sound technologies were received by real people in particular places and moments in time.
|Publisher:||Duke University Press Books|
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About the Author
Timothy D. Taylor is Professor of Ethnomusicology and Musicology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author of The Sounds of Capitalism: Advertising, Music, and the Conquest of Culture and Beyond Exoticism: Western Music and the World, which is also published by Duke University Press.
Mark Katz is Associate Professor of Music at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He is the author of Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music and Groove Music: The Art and Culture of the Hip-Hop DJ.
Tony Grajeda is Associate Professor of Cultural Studies in the Department of English at the University of Central Florida. He is an editor of Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound.
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MUSIC, SOUND, AND TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICAA Documentary History of Early Phonograph, Cinema, and Radio
Duke University PressCopyright © 2012 Duke University Press
All right reserved.
Chapter OneSOUND RECORDING
Readings Compiled by Mark Katz
1. Thomas A. Edison, "The Phonograph and Its Future" North American Review 126 (1878), 530-36
Of all the writer's inventions, none has commanded such profound and earnest attention throughout the civilized world as has the phonograph. This fact he attributes largely to that peculiarity of the invention which brings its possibilities within range of the speculative imaginations of all thinking people, as well as to the almost universal applicability of the foundation principle, namely, the gathering up and retaining of sounds hitherto fugitive, and their reproduction at will.
From the very abundance of conjectural and prophetic opinions which have been disseminated by the press, the public is liable to become confused, and less accurately informed as to the immediate result and effects of the phonograph than if the invention had been confined to certain specific applications, and therefore of less interest to the masses. The writer has no fault to find with this condition of the discussion of the merits and possibilities of his invention; for, indeed, the possibilities are so illimitable and the probabilities so numerous that he—though subject to the influence of familiar contact—is himself in a somewhat chaotic condition of mind as to where to draw the dividing line. In point of fact, such line cannot with safety be defined in ordinary inventions at so early a stage of their development. In the case of an invention of the nature and scope of the phonograph, it is practically impossible to indicate it today, for tomorrow a trifle may extend it almost indefinitely.
There are, however, certain stages in the developing process which have thus far been actually reached; certain others which are clearly within reach; and others which, though they are in the light of today classed as possibilities, may tomorrow become probable, and a little later actual achievements. It is the intention of the writer in this article to confine himself to the actual and the probable, to the end that a clearer conception of the immediate realizations of the phonograph may be had. He concedes to the public press and the world of science the imaginative work of pointing out and commenting upon the possible. It is in view of the liberal manner in which this has already been done, and the handsome treatment he has received at their hands, that he for the first time appears in propria persona to discuss and comment upon the merits of one of his own inventions.
In order to furnish a basis upon which the reader may take his stand, and accept or combat the logic of the writer in his presentment of the probabilities of the phonograph, a few categorical questions are put and answers given upon the essential features of the principle involved:
1. Is a vibrating plate or disk capable of receiving a complex motion which shall correctly represent the peculiar property of each and all the multifarious vocal and other sound-waves?
The telephone answers affirmatively.
2. Can such complex movement be transmitted from such plate, by means of a single embossing-point attached thereto, to effect a record upon a plastic material by indentation, with such fidelity as to give to such indentations the same varied and complex form; and, if so, will this embossing-point, upon being passed over the record thus made, follow it with such fidelity as to retransmit to the disk the same variety of movement, and thus effect a restoration or reproduction of the vocal or other sound-waves, without loss of any property essential to producing upon the ear the same sensation as if coming direct from the original source?
The answer to this may be summed up in a statement of the fact that, by the application of power for uniformity of movement, and by attention to many seemingly unimportant and minor details, such as the form and material of the embossing-point, the proper dampening of the plate, the character of the material embossed, the formation of the mouth-piece over the plate, etc., the writer has at various times during the past weeks reproduced these waves with such degree of accuracy in each and every detail as to enable his assistants to read, without the loss of a word, one or more columns of a newspaper article unfamiliar to them, and which were spoken into the apparatus when they were not present. The only perceptible loss was found to be in the quality of the utterance—a non-essential in the practical application of the apparatus. Indeed, the articulation of some individuals has been very perceptibly improved by passage through the phonograph, the original utterance being mutilated by imperfection of lip and mouth formation, and these mutilations eliminated or corrected by the mechanism of the phonograph.
3. Can a record be removed from the apparatus upon which it was made, and replaced upon a second without mutilation or loss of effective power to vibrate the second plate?
This is a mere mechanical detail, presenting no greater obstacle than having proper regard for the perfect interchangeableness of the various working parts of the apparatus—not so nice a problem as the manufacture of the American watch.
4. What as to facility of placing and removing the record-sheet, and as to its transportation by mail?
But ten or fifteen seconds suffice for such placing or removal. A special envelope will probably be required for the present, the weight and form of which, however, will but slightly increase the cost of postage.
5. What as to durability?
Repeated experiments have proved that the indentations possess wonderful enduring power, even when the reproduction has been effected by the comparatively rigid plate used for their production. It is proposed, however, to use a more flexible plate for reproducing, which, with a perfectly smooth stone point—diamond or sapphire—will render the record capable of from 50 to 100 repetitions, enough for all practical purposes.
6. What as to duplication of a record and its permanence?
Many experiments have been made, with more or less success, in the effort to obtain stereotypes of a record. This work has been done by others, and, though the writer has not as yet seen it, he is reliably informed that, very recently, it has been successfully accomplished. He can certainly see no practical obstacle in the way. This, of course, permits of an indefinite multiplication of a record, and its preservation for all time.
7. What are the requisite force of wave impinging upon the diaphragm and the proximity of the mouth to the diaphragm to effect a record?
These depend in a great measure upon the volume of sound desired in the reproduction. If the reproduction is to be made audible to an audience, considerable force is requisite in the original utterance; if for the individual ear, only the ordinary conversational tone (even a whisper has been reproduced). In both cases the original utterances are delivered directly in the mouthpiece of the instrument. An audible reproduction may, however, be had by speaking at the instrument from a distance of from two to three feet in a loud tone. The application of a flaring tube or funnel to collect the sound waves and the construction of an especially delicate diaphragm and embossing-point, etc., are the simple means which suggest themselves to effect this. The writer has not as yet given this stage of the development much attention, but sees no practical difficulty in gathering up and retaining a sectional part of the sound waves diffused about the original source, within a radius of, say, three feet (sufficiently removed not to be annoying to a speaker or a singer).
The foregoing presentment of the stage of development reached by the several essential features of the phonograph demonstrates the following faits accomplis:
1. The captivity of all manner of sound-waves heretofore designated as "fugitive," and their permanent retention.
2. Their reproduction with all their original characteristics at will, without the presence or consent of the original source, and after the lapse of any period of time.
3. The transmission of such captive sounds through the ordinary channels of commercial intercourse and trade in material form, for purposes of communication or as merchantable goods.
4. Indefinite multiplication and preservation of such sounds, without regard to the existence or non-existence of the original source.
5. The captivation of sounds, with or without the knowledge or consent of the source of their origin.
The probable application of these properties of the phonograph to the various branches of commercial and scientific industry presently indicated will require the exercise of more or less mechanical ingenuity. Conceding that the apparatus is practically perfected in so far as the faithful reproduction of sound is concerned, many of the following applications will be made the moment the new form of apparatus, which the writer is now about completing, is finished. These, then, might be classed as actualities; but they so closely trench upon other applications which will immediately follow, that it is impossible to separate them: hence they are all enumerated under the head of probabilities, and each specially considered. Among the more important may be mentioned: Letter-writing and other forms of dictation, books, education, reader, music, family record; and such electrotype applications as books, musical boxes, toys clocks advertising and signaling apparatus, speeches, etc., etc.
Letter-writing.—The apparatus now being perfected in mechanical details will be the standard phonograph, and may be used for all purposes except such as require special form of matrix, such as toys, clocks, etc., for an indefinite repetition of the same thing. The main utility of the phonograph, however, being for the purpose of letter writing and other forms of dictation, the design is made with a view to its utility for that purpose.
The general principles of construction are a flat plate or disk, with spiral groove on the face, operated by clockwork underneath the plate; the grooves are cut very closely together, so as to give a great total length to each inch of surface—close calculation gives as the capacity of each sheet of foil, upon which the record is had, in the neighborhood of 40,000 words. The sheets being but ten inches square, the cost is so trifling that but 100 words might be put upon a single sheet economically. Still, it is problematical whether a less number of grooves per inch might not be the better plan—it certainly would for letters—but it is desirable to have but one class of machine throughout the world; and as very extended communications, if put upon one sheet, could be transported more economically than upon two, it is important that each sheet be given as great capacity as possible. The writer has not yet decided this point, but will experiment with a view of ascertaining the best mean capacity.
The practical application of this form of phonograph for communications is very simple. A sheet of foil is placed in the phonograph, the clockwork set in motion, and the matter dictated into the mouthpiece without other effort than when dictating to a stenographer. It is then removed, placed in a suitable form of envelope, and sent through the ordinary channels to the correspondent for whom designed. He, placing it upon his phonograph, starts his clock-work and listens to what his correspondent has to say. Inasmuch as it gives the tone of voice of his correspondent, it is identified. As it may be filed away as other letters, and at any subsequent time reproduced, it is a perfect record. As two sheets of tin foil have been indented with the same facility as a single sheet, the "writer" may thus keep a duplicate of his communication. As the principal of a business house or his partners now dictate the important business communications to clerks, to be written out, they are required to do no more by the phonographic method, and do thereby dispense with the clerk, and maintain perfect privacy in their communications.
The phonograph letters may be dictated at home, or in the office of a friend, the presence of a stenographer not being required. The dictation may be as rapid as the thoughts can be formed or the lips utter them. The recipient may listen to his letters being read at a rate of from 150 to 200 words per minute, and at the same time busy himself about other matters. Interjections, explanations, emphasis, exclamations, etc., may be thrown into such letters, ad libitum.
In the early days of the phonograph, ere it has become universally adopted, a correspondent in Hong Kong may possibly not be supplied with an apparatus, thus necessitating a written letter of the old-fashioned sort. In that case the writer would use his phonograph simply as a dictating-machine, his clerk writing it out from the phonograph at leisure, causing as many words to be uttered at one time as his memory was capable of retaining until he had written them down. This clerk need not be a stenographer, nor need he have been present when the letter was dictated, etc.
The advantages of such an innovation upon the present slow, tedious, and costly methods are too numerous, and too readily suggest themselves, to warrant their enumeration, while there are no disadvantages which will not disappear coincident with the general introduction of the new method.
Dictation.—All kinds and manner of dictation which will permit of the application of the mouth of the speaker to the mouth-piece of the phonograph may be as readily effected by the phonograph as in the case of letters. If the matter is for the printer, he would much prefer, in setting it up in type, to use his ears in lieu of his eyes. He has other use for them. It would be even worthwhile to compel witnesses in court to speak directly into the phonograph, in order to thus obtain an unimpeachable record of their testimony.
The increased delicacy of the phonograph, which is in the near future, will enlarge this field rapidly. It may then include all the sayings of not only the witness, but the judge and the counsel. It will then also comprehend the utterances of public speakers.
Books.—Books may be read by the charitably inclined professional reader, or by such readers especially employed for that purpose, and the record of each book used in the asylums of the blind, hospitals, the sick-chamber, or even with great profit and amusement by the lady or gentleman whose eyes and hands may be otherwise employed; or, again, because of the greater enjoyment to be had from a book when read by an elocutionist than when read by the average reader. The ordinary record-sheet, repeating this book from fifty to a hundred times as it will, would command a price that would pay the original reader well for the slightly-increased difficulty in reading it aloud in the phonograph.
Educational Purposes.—As an elocutionary teacher, or as a primary teacher for children, it will certainly be invaluable. By it difficult passages may be correctly rendered for the pupil but once, after which he has only to apply to his phonograph for instructions. The child may thus learn to spell, commit to memory, a lesson set for it, etc., etc.
Music.—The phonograph will undoubtedly be liberally devoted to music. A song sung on the phonograph is reproduced with marvelous accuracy and power. Thus a friend may in a morning-call sing us a song which shall delight an evening company, etc. As a musical teacher it will be used to enable one to master a new air, the child to form its first songs, or to sing him to sleep.
Family Record.—For the purpose of preserving the sayings, the voices, and the last words of the dying member of the family—as of great men—the phonograph will unquestionably outrank the photograph. In the field of multiplication of original matrices, and the indefinite repetition of one and the same thing, the successful electrotyping of the original record is an essential. As this is a problem easy of solution, it properly ranks among the probabilities. It comprehends a vast field. The principal application of the phonograph in this direction is in the production of
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Table of Contents
General Introduction: Music Technologies in Everyday Life / Timothy D. Taylor 1
Part 1. Sound Recording
Introduction / Mark Katz 11
Sound Recording: Readings 29
The Listener and the Phonograph 44
Learning to Listen 44
The Phonograph in Everyday Life 48
The Phonograph and Music Appreication 65
Men, Women, and Phonographs 70
Music and the Great War 78
Performers and the Phonograph 84
In the Recording Studio 84
The Phonograph and Music Pedagogy 94
The Phonograph and the Composer 104
The Composer in the Machine Age 104
The Phonograph as a Compositional Tool 110
Phonograph Debates 113
Part II. Cinema
Introduction / Tony Grajeda 137
Cinema: Readings 145
Technologies of Sight and Sound 145
Sounds of the Cinema: Illustrated Song Slides; The Role of the Voice (lecturers, actors); Incidental Musics, Special Effects, Ballyhoo, and Noise of the Audience 153
Playing to the Pictures 173
Performative Accompaniment 173
The Organist of the Picture Palace 192
Conducting and Scoring to the Movies 200
Taste, Culture, and Educating the Public 212
Responding to the Talkies 226
Part III. Radio
Introduction / Timothy D. Taylor 239
Radio: Readings 255
Radio as Dream, Radio as Technology 255
Early Broadcasts: Performer and Listener Impressions 266
Radio in Everyday Life 275
Economics of Radio Broadcasting 285
Music on the Radio 301
What Do Listeners Want? 311
Radio Behind the Scenes 324
Getting on the Air 324
Production behind the Scenes 344
Composing for the Radio 354
How to Listen to Music on the Radio 361