Nanoscale Devices: Fabrication, Functionalization, and Accessibility from the Macroscopic World / Edition 1

Nanoscale Devices: Fabrication, Functionalization, and Accessibility from the Macroscopic World / Edition 1

by Gianfranco Cerofolini
ISBN-10:
354092731X
ISBN-13:
9783540927310
Pub. Date:
09/07/2009
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Hardcover

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Overview

Nanoscale Devices: Fabrication, Functionalization, and Accessibility from the Macroscopic World / Edition 1

The evolution of the microelectronics is controlled by the idea of scaling. However, the scaling of the device size below 10 nm is expected to be impossible because of physical, technological and economic reasons. Fundamental considerations (based on Heisenberg's principle, Schrödinger equation, decoherence of quantum states, and Landauer limit) suggest that a length scale of a few nanometers is possible. On this length scale, reconfigurable molecules (via redox or internal excitation processes) seem to be suitable for that. Moreover, crossbar with cross-point density in the range 1010-1011 cm-2 can already be prepared with existing methods, and such methods permit the link of nanoscopic cross-points to lithographically accessible contacts. The structures for molecular electronics deal with molecules. Although this subject is highly interdisciplinary (covering quantum and statistical mechanics, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry of surfaces, and silicon technology and devices), the book is intended to be self-contained providing in appendices the necessary side knowledge.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540927310
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 09/07/2009
Series: NanoScience and Technology
Edition description: 2009
Pages: 205
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Gianfranco ("GF") Cerofolini (degree in Physics from the University of Milan, 1970) is visiting researcher at the University of Milano-Bicocca. His major interests are addressed to the physical limits of miniaturization and to the 'emergence' of higher-level phenomena from the underlying lower-level substrate (measurement in quantum mechanics, life in biological systems, etc.).

Although his research activity has been carried out in the industry (vacuum: SAES Getters; telecommunication: Telettra; chemistry and energetics: ENI; integrated circuits: STMicroelectronics), he has had frequent collaborations with academic centers (University of Lublin, IMEC, Stanford University, City College of New York, several Italian Universities), has been lecturer in a few Universities (Pisa, Modena, and Polytechnic of Milan), and currently is lecturer at the University of Milano-Bicocca.

His research has covered several areas: adsorption, biophysics, CMOS processing (oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, gettering), electronic and optical materials, theory of acidity, and nanoelectronics.

A gettering technique of widespread use in microelectronics, the complete setting of ST's first silicon-gate CMOS process, the development of a process for low-fluence SOI, and the identification of a strategy for molecular electronics via a conservative extension of the existing microelectronic technology, are among his major industrial achievements. His main scientific results range from the preparation and characterization of ideal silicon p-n junctions and the discovery of a mechanism therein of pure generation without recombination, to the theoretical description of layer-by-layer oxidation at room temperature of silicon, and to the development of original mathematical techniques for the description of adsorption on heterogeneous or soft surfaces.

The results of his activity have been published in approximately 300 articles, chapters to books, and encyclopaedic items, and in a score of patents.

Table of Contents

List of Acronyms XV

Part I Basics

1 Matter on the Nanoscale 3

1.1 Nanotechnology and the (N + 1) Problem 4

1.2 Microelectronics is a Nanotechnology 5

1.3 From Microlectronics to Molecular Electronics 6

2 Top-Down Paradigm to Miniaturization 9

2.1 The Path Toward Size Reduction 10

2.2 Going Down with Device Size is a Hard Uphill Path 14

2.2.1 The Physical Limit 14

2.2.2 The Technological Limit 15

2.2.3 The Economic Limit 16

2.3 Going Beneath the Limiting Size 17

3 Physical Limits to Miniaturization 19

3.1 A Case Study: The Limits of Computation 19

3.2 The Basic Computational Unit 20

3.3 Programming 24

3.3.1 Limits Imposed by the Uncertainty Principle 24

3.3.2 lLimits Imposed by Ballistic Material Motion 25

3.3.3 Limits Imposed by the Thermal Embedding 26

3.4 Computation and Irreversibility 29

3.4.1 Irreversible Computation 29

3.4.2 Reversible Computation 30

3.4.3 Minimum Dissipation 32

3.4.4 Computation and Measure 36

3.5 Reading 39

3.5.1 Coupling the Carrier with the External World 40

3.5.2 Physical Limits in READ Operation 40

3.5.3 A Little Step Toward Practical Implementation 44

4 The Crossbar Structure 45

4.1 The Crossbar Process 46

4.2 Process Integration 50

4.3 Why Molecules? 51

5 Crossbar Production 53

5.1 Imprint Lithography 54

5.2 Spacer Patterning Technology 56

5.3 Multispacer Patterning Technology 56

5.3.1 Multiplicative Route: SnPTX 57

5.3.2 Additive Route: SnPT+ 61

5.4 Minimum Exploitable Bar Width 67

6 The Litho-to-Nano link 69

6.1 The Horizontal Beveling Technique 71

6.2 Fusing Adjacent Lines in SnPT+ 72

6.3Energetic Filtering 75

6.4 Technology and Architecture 77

6.5 Not Only Crossbars 79

6.5.1 Supercapacitors 80

6.5.2 Photoluminescent Nanosheets 80

6.5.3 Nanowire Arrays as Seebeck Generators 81

7 Functional Molecules 83

7.1 The Molecule as a One-Dimensional Wire 83

7.1.1 The Role of Contacts: Landauer Resistance 84

17.1.2 Barrier Transparency 84

7.2 Conduction Along Alkanes 87

7.3 Switchable π-Conjugated Molecules 88

7.4 Molecules Exhibiting Superexchange Conduction 90

7.5 A Comparison of the Switching Mechanisms 92

8 Grafting Functional Molecules 95

8.1 Silicon and Its Surfaces 95

8.1.1 Silicon Chemistry 97

8.1.2 The Role of Surfaces 98

8.1.3 The Surface of Single-Crystalline Silicon 99

8.1.4 The Surface of Polycrystalline Silicon 105

8.1.5 The Surface of Porous Silicon 106

8.1.6 Inner Surfaces and the Fantastic Chemistry in Nanocavities 107

8.2 Routes for Silicon Functionalization 111

8.2.1 Hydrosilation 113

8.2.2 Hydrosilation at the Hydrogen-Terminated (1 0 0) Si Surface 114

8.3 Grafting in Restricted Geometries 116

8.4 Three-Terminal Molecules 123

8.5 Nanostructured Oxo-Bonded Silion 125

8.5.1 Hydrothermal Synthesis: Zeolites 126

8.5.2 Hydrolysis and Polycondensation: Aerogles 127

Concluding Remarks 131

Part II Advanced Topics: Self-Similar Structures, Molecular Motors, and Nanobiosystems

9 Examples 135

9.1 Hybrid Molecule-MOS-FET Combination 135

9.2 Crossbar Functionalization 137

10 Self-Similar Nanostructures 141

10.1 Fractals 141

10.1.1 Queer Systems 141

10.1.2 Fracrals in Mathematics 142

10.2 Fractals in Nature 143

10.2.1 Fractal Biological Systems

10.2.2 Fractal Surfaces 144

10.3 Fractals in Technology 146

11 Molecular Motors 151

11.1 Molecular Building Blocks 153

11.2 Controlling Movement with Electric Field 155

11.3 Combining Ballistic and Brownian Motions 157

11.4 Brownian Motors 160

12 Nanobiosensing 165

12.1 Reducing Cell Biology to Molecular Biology 165

12.2 From Molecular Biology to Systems Biology 168

12.3 Sensing as a Key Tool for Systems Biology 169

12.4 From ICs to Nanobiosensors 170

12.4.1 The Incremental Incremental Increase of Complexity of ICs and Sensors 171

12.4.2 The Shift of Paradigm 172

12.5 A Roadmap for Nanobiosensing 174

12.5.1 Nanobiosensing In Vitro 174

12.5.2 Nanobiosensing In Vivo 177

13 Abstract Technology 179

13.1 Material Bodies and Surfaces 180

13.2 Processes Controlled by Geometry 181

13.2.1 Conformal Processes 182

13.2.2 Directional Processes 184

13.3 Processes Controlled by the Material 186

13.4 Abstract Technology in Concrete 188

References 191

Index 201

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