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The field of nanotechnology has developed very rapidly over the past decade lending great promise to medical applications in drug delivery, therapeutics, and biological imaging. Due to the great promise, rapid development, and broad application of nanomaterials, it is imperative that researchers from development through application seek a thorough understanding of nanotoxicity. Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols address the special considerations when applying toxicity studies to nanomaterials and detail newly developed methods for the study of nanotoxicity. These diverse methods span in vitro cell culture, model tissues, in situ exposure, in vivo models, analysis in plants, and mathematical modeling, proving to be relevant to pharmaceutical scientists, material scientists, bioengineers, toxicologists, environmentalists, immunologists, and cellular and molecular biologists, to name a few. As part of the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology™, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols aims to diversify the capabilities of current researchers involved in nanotoxicology and to enable researchers in related fields to expand their knowledge of how nanomaterials interface with the biological environment.
Table of Contents
1. Historical Overview of Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology
2. Characterization of Nanomaterials for Toxicological Studies
3. Methods for Understanding the Interaction Between Nanoparticles and Cells
4. Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (COMET) Assay in Nano-Genotoxicology
5. Single-Cell Nanotoxicity Assays of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs)
6. Western Blot Analysis
7. Application of Reverse Transcription-PCR and Real-Time PCR in Nanotoxicity Research
8. Deriving TC50 Values of Nanoparticles from Electrochemical Monitoring of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity Indirectly
9. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay of IL-8 Production in Response to Silver Nanoparticles
10. Metabolomics Techniques in Nanotoxicology Studies
11. Nanoparticle Uptake Measured by Flow Cytometry
12. Determining Biological Activity of Nanoparticles as Measured by Flow Cytometry
13. Whole Cell Impedance Biosensoring Devices
14. Free Energy Calculation of Permeant-Membrane Interactions Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations
15. Screening of Fullerene Toxicity by Haemolysis Assay
16. Assessment of In Vitro Skin Irritation Potential of Nanoparticles: RHE Model
17. In Vivo Methods of Nanotoxicology
18. The Luminescent Bacteria Test to Determine the Acute Toxicity of Nanoparticle Suspensions
19. The Primacy of Physicochemical Characterization of Nanomaterials for Reliable Toxicity Assessment: A Review of the Zebrafish Nanotoxicology Model
20. Application of Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish for Nanotoxicity Assessment
21. Applications of Subsurface Microscopy
22. Application of ICP-MS for the Study of Disposition and Toxicity of Metal-Based Nanomaterials
23. Quantitative Nanoparticle Organ Disposition by Gel Permeation Chromatography
24. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling For Nanoparticle Toxicity Study
25. Biophysical Methods for Assessing Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Exposure
26. In Vivo Nanotoxicity Assays in Plant Models