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Numerous countries across the world are faced today with nationalist movements that seek separation from the state. At the same time, we are also witnessing various attempts at supra-national integration, best exemplified by the process of European unification. Whilst these may seem to be opposite tendencies, this work proposes that both political projects are underpinned by a similar concern for national identity. Thus it challenges the idea that nationalism is the prerogative of separatist movements and that supra-national integration represents the superseding of national identities. Instead, it argues that national identification can lead to support for separatism or integration as a function of people's views about social and political realities and about how such identity is best defended or promoted. Based on research conducted in Scotland, this work should be of relevance to all scholars (social psychologists, sociologists, political scientists) interested in the issues of national identity, separatism, and supra-national integration, as well as to those interested in identity issues and group relations in general.