This book examines the viability of recent NATO out-of-area operations, specifically in Kosovo and Afghanistan. It illustrates that the complex decision-making bureaucracy of NATO can be a detriment to the capabilities of the alliance and limits the strategic options available to the organization. By studying strategy development after the end of the Cold War and leading up to the commitment of NATO to the ISAF, it becomes clear that these structures and processes do not easily facilitate the formation of a coherent strategy that meets alliance objectives. During times of conflict, especially those well outside of alliance boundaries, more flexible and adaptable institutional structures are necessary for effective war prosecution. Through this approach, it becomes apparent that the anticipated new strategic concept must once again adapt the alliance in order to remain relevant in the contemporary security environment.