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Natural Hazards and Disasters, 2005 Hurricane Edition (with Errata Table of / Edition 1

Natural Hazards and Disasters, 2005 Hurricane Edition (with Errata Table of / Edition 1

by Donald Hyndman, David Hyndman


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780495393269
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 12/28/2006
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 528
Product dimensions: 9.00(w) x 10.70(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Donald Hyndman is a recently retired professor in the Department of Geology at the University of Montana, where he has taught courses in natural hazards, regional geology, igneous and metamorphic petrology, volcanology, and advanced igneous petrology. He continues to teach courses in natural hazards. Donald is co-originator and coauthor of six books in the Roadside Geology series and one on the geology of the Pacific Northwest, and he has also written a textbook on Igneous Petrology. His B.S. in Geological Engineering is from the University of British Columbia, and his Ph.D. in Geology is from the University of California-Berkeley. He has received the Distinguished Teaching Award and the Distinguished Scholar Award, both given by the University of Montana.

David Hyndman is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Michigan State University, where he teaches courses in natural hazards, environmental geology, physical geology, and advanced hydrogeology. His B.S. in Hydrology and Water Resources is from the University of Arizona and his M.S. in Applied Earth Sciences and Ph.D. in Geological and Environmental Sciences are from Stanford University. David is an Associate Editor for the journals "Water Resources Research" and "Ground Water," has been selected for the Ronald Wilson Teaching Award, and has been the 2002 Darcy Distinguished Lecturer as well as a Lilly Teaching Fellow.

Table of Contents

Preface     xv
Natural Hazards and Disasters: Catastrophic Events in Nature     1
Living in Harm's Way     1
Avoiding Natural Disasters     3
Land Use Planning     3
Pointing the Blame Finger     3
Predicting Catastrophe     4
Randomness in Natural Events     5
Hazard and Risk     6
Population and Social Pressures     8
The Role of Public Education     9
Key Points     10
Important Words and Concepts     11
Questions for Review     11
Further Reading     11
Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards     12
Development of the Theory     12
Earth Structure     16
Where Plates Pull Apart (Spreading Zones or Divergent Boundaries)     23
Where Plates Come Together (Convergent Boundaries)     24
Where Plates Slide Past Each Other (Transform Faults)     29
Hotspot Volcanoes     30
The Scientific Method     33
Summary     33
Key Points     33
Important Words and Concepts     34
Questions for Review     34
Further Reading     34
Earthquakes and Their Damages: Shaking Ground, Collapsing Buildings     35
Earthquakes Up Close: Loma Prieta, 1989     36
Earthquakes and Earthquake Waves     38
Frequency and Wavelength     38
Seismographs     39
Movement of a Pendulum     39
Faults and Earthquakes     41
Causes of Earthquakes     42
Locating Earthquakes     44
Earthquake Size and Characteristics     44
Mercalli Intensity Scale     45
Richter Magnitude Scale     47
Large-Earthquake Characteristics     47
Earthquake Frequency     48
Ground Acceleration, Shaking Time, and Displacement     48
Ground Motion and Failure During Earthquakes     48
Liquefaction     50
Case in Point: Mexico City Earthquake, 1985     51
Quick Clays     52
Landslides     52
Effect of Bedrock Structure     53
Damage Control     53
Case in Point: Armenian Earthquake, 1988     53
Case in Point: Kobe Earthquake, Japan, 1995     57
Earthquake Effects on Buildings     59
Building Vibration and Oscillation     60
Base Isolation      60
Key Points     62
Important Words and Concepts     63
Question for Review     63
Further Reading     63
Earthquake Prediction and Tectonic Environments     64
Predicting Earthquakes     64
Earthquake Predictions and Consequences     65
Earthquake Precursors     65
Case in Point: Haicheng and Tangshan Earthquakes, China, 1975 and 1976     66
Seismic Gaps     67
Migrating Earthquakes     68
Earthquake Regularity     68
Paleoseismology     69
Water as a Triggering Mechanism?     69
Early Warning Systems     71
Long-Term Forecasts and Risk Maps     71
Psychics     72
Surviving Earthquakes     73
The San Andreas Fault     73
San Francisco Bay Area Earthquakes     77
Hayward and Rodgers Creek Faults     79
Los Angeles Area Earthquakes     81
Tectonic Environments of Major Earthquakes     85
Transform Faults     85
Subduction Zones     87
Blind Thrust Faults over an Active Subduction Zone     88
Continent-Continent Collision Zones     88
Blind Thrust Faults Associated with a Continental Collision Zone     90
Continental Spreading Zones     91
Intraplate Earthquakes without Obvious Tectonic Context     93
The Potential for Still Larger Events     96
Key Points     97
Important Words and Concepts     97
Questions for Review     98
Further Reading     98
Tsunami: The Great Wave     99
Harbor Waves     99
Sumatra Tsunami: December 2004     99
Chile Tsunami: May 1960     102
Tsunami Generation     104
Earthquake-Generated Tsunami     104
Volcano-Generated Tsunami     105
Tsunami from Fast-Moving Landslides or Rockfalls     105
Case in Point: Anchorage, Alaska, 1964     106
Case in Point: Hokkaida, Japan, 1993     108
Case in Point: Lituya Bay, Alaska, 1958     109
Case in Point: Glacier Bay, Alaska     110
Case in Point: Krakatau     111
Tsunami from Volcano Flank Collapse     111
Tsunami from Asteroid Impact     114
Velocity and Height     114
Coastal Effects and Vulnerability     116
Tsunami from Great Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest      118
Tsunami Hazard Mitigation     122
Surviving a Tsunami     122
Tsunami Examples     122
Seiches     122
The Potential for Giant Tsunami     124
Key Points     125
Important Words and Concepts     126
Questions for Review     126
Further Reading     126
Volcanoes: Materials, Hazards, and Eruptive Mechanisms     127
Volcanoes Up Close: Mount St. Helens Eruption, 1980     128
Mount St. Helens Eruption, May 18, 1980     130
Preamble to the May 18 Eruption     131
Types of Volcanic Hazards and Products     134
Lava Flows     134
Oceanic Ridges     136
Continental Flood Basalts     136
Ash Falls     137
Ash Flows, Glowing Avalanches, and Surges     138
Magma Chambers and the Driving Force behind Eruptions     142
Magma Chambers     142
Explosive Eruptions     143
Volcanic Mudflows     143
Poisonous Gases     145
Volcanic Behavior: Relationships to Viscosity, Volatiles, and Volume     146
Key Points     149
Important Words and Concepts      150
Questions for Review     150
Further Reading     150
Volcanoes: Types, Behavior, and Risks     151
Basaltic Volcanoes     151
Shield Volcanoes     151
Cinder Cones     155
Andesitic Volcanoes: Stratovolcanoes     157
Case in Point: The High Cascades     157
Mount St. Helens     159
Mount Hood     159
Mount Rainier     159
Mount Lassen     161
Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)     162
Three Sisters     163
Mount Shasta     164
Rhyolitic Volcanoes     165
Lava Domes     165
Case in Point: Mount Pelee, Martinique, West Indies     166
Giant Continental Calderas     168
Case in Point: Yellowstone Volcano     170
Volcanic Eruptions and Products     171
Explosive Eruption Styles     172
Assessment of Hazard and Risk of Volcanoes     173
Ancient Eruptions     173
Case in Point: Santorini, Greece     174
Eruption Warnings: Volcanic Precursors     176
Case in Point: Mount Pinatubo     178
Case in Point: Vesuvius and Its Neighbors      180
Violent Eruptions and Active Subduction Zones     185
A Look Ahead     185
Key Points     185
Important Words and Concepts     186
Questions for Review     186
Further Reading     186
Landslides and Other Downslope Movements: Falling Mountains     187
Factors Controlling Downslope Movement of Landslides     187
Landslides Up Close: La Conchita, California     188
Load     189
Slope     189
Slope Material: Strength and Friction     190
Friction     190
A Little Water     191
Too Much Water     191
Clays and Clay Behavior     193
Liquefaction and Earthquakes     194
Quick Clays     194
Earthquakes Trigger Many Landslides     195
Internal Surfaces     196
Old Landslides     198
Types of Downslope Movement     198
Rockfalls and Rock Avalanches     198
Debris Avalanches     200
Case in Point: Rockfall Hazards West of Denver     200
Case in Point: Rockville Rockfall, Southwestern Utah     201
Case in Point: Madison Slide, Montana     202
Case in Point: Frank Slide, Alberta     203
Case in Point: Elam, Switzerland     204
Case in Point: Yungay, Peru     205
Rotational Slides and Slumps     206
Stresses on the Shear Surface: Method of Slices     207
Sackung     208
Translational Slides     208
Case in Point: The Vaiont Landslide     210
Lateral-Spreading Slides     212
Debris Flows     212
Case in Point: A Tropical Climate Debris-Flow and Flood Disaster     216
Danger Signs: Evidence for Former Debris Flows     219
Mudflows and Earthflows     220
Soil Creep     221
Rates of Downslope Movements     222
Submarine Slides     222
Volcano Flank Collapse     222
Failure of Landslide Dams     223
Landslide Influences and Hazard Maps     224
Why People Build in Landslide-Prone Areas?     224
Key Point     226
Important Words and Concepts     227
Questions for Review     227
Further Reading     227
Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling Soils     228
Ground Collapse and Sinkholes     228
Formation of Cavities in Limestone      228
Collapsing Cavities     230
Sinkholes in Different Regions     231
Central Florida Sinkholes     231
Sinkhole Problems in Central and Eastern Pennsylvania     232
Sinkholes in Kentucky     233
Collapse over a Salt Mine in Western New York     233
Land Subsidence     233
Mining Groundwater and Petroleum     233
Case in Point: San Joaquin Valley of California     235
Drainage of Organic Soils     237
Ground Subsidence with Drying of Clays     237
Case in Point: Venice, Italy     238
Swelling Soils     240
Case in Point Denver's Swelling Soils     242
Key Points     244
Important Words and Concepts     244
Questions for Review     244
Further Reading     244
Climate and Weather Related to Hazards: Storms on the Horizon     245
Global Warming     245
Atmospheric Cooling     248
Case in Point: Mount Tambora     248
Climatic Cycles?     248
Days     249
Seasons     249
Precession of the Equinoxes: -26,000 Years     249
Change in the Tilt of Earth's Axis: -41,000 Years     249
Change in the Elliptical Shape of Earth's Orbit: -100,000-Year Cycles     249
Basic Elements of Weather     251
Hydrologic Cycle and Humidity     251
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation     252
Atmospheric Pressure and Weather     253
Coriolis Effect     254
Global Air Circulation     256
Jet Stream     257
Weather Fronts     258
El Nino     260
Normal Pattern     260
El Nino Conditions     261
Predicting El Nino     262
North Atlantic Oscillation     262
Climate Controls on Flooding     263
Importance of Duration and Intensity of Rainfall     264
Dry Climates     265
Strong Winds Not Associated with Storms     265
Chinook Winds     265
Santa Ana Winds     265
Key Points     265
Important Words and Concepts     266
Questions for Review     266
Further Reading     267
Streams and Flood Processes: Rising Waters     268
Stream Flow and Sediment Transport Processes     269
Stream Flow and Gradient     269
Floods Up Close: Big Thompson Canyon, Northwest of Denver     270
Bankfull Channel Width, Depth, and Capacity     272
Sediment Transport and Stream Equilibrium     273
Sediment Transport Mechanisms     277
Stream Types     277
Meandering Streams     277
Braided Streams     280
Bedrock Streams     281
The Hydrograph     282
Precipitation Intensity and Runoff     282
Stream Order and Hydrograph Shape     283
Flood Crests Move Downstream     283
Floods on Frozen or Water-Saturated Ground     284
Destructive Energy of Floods     285
Stream Power     285
Flood Frequency and Recurrence Intervals     285
Recurrence Intervals and Discharge     285
Case in Point: Spring Thaw from the South on a North-Flowing River     286
Case in Point: Guadalupe River Upstream of New Braunfels, Texas     288
Problems with Recurrence Intervals     290
Floodplains and 100-Year Floodplains     292
Flood Insurance     293
Key Points     294
Important Words and Concepts     295
Questions for Review     295
Further Reading      296
Floods and Human Interactions     297
Effects of Development on Floodplains     297
Levees     297
The Great Mississippi River Basin Flood of 1993     299
Intentional Levee Breaks     303
Levees, Safety, and Costs     304
Avulsion     305
Channelization     305
Case in Point: Yellow (Huang-Ho) River of China     306
Case in Point: New Orleans     308
Case in Point: A Channelized Old World River     310
Flood Control and Multipurpose Dams     311
Floods Caused by Failure of Human-Made Dams     311
Case in Point: Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley, California     312
Urbanization     314
Case in Point: Failure of the Teton Dam, Idaho     315
Flash Flood Hazards     316
Changes Imposed on Streams     317
Forest Fires and Range Fires     317
Logging and Overgrazing     317
Hydraulic Placer Mining     317
Dams and Stream Equilibrium     318
Bridges     319
Mining of Stream Sand and Gravel     319
Paleoflood Analysis     320
Early Postflood Evidence     320
Case in Point: Channel Deepening and Groundwater Loss from Gravel Mining     321
Paleoflood Markers     322
Review of Factors That Influence Floods     323
Complexity, or "Coincident Criticality" and Floods     324
Key Points     324
Important Words and Concepts     325
Questions for Review     325
Further Reading     325
Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion: Rivers of Sand     326
Living on Dangerous Coasts     326
Waves     327
Beaches     329
Wave Refraction and Longshore Drift     329
Waves on Rocky Coasts     331
Beach Slope: An Equilibrium Profile     331
Rip Currents     332
Loss of Sand from the Beach     332
People Move to the Beach     332
Beach Erosion and Hardening     333
Reduction of Sand Supply     333
Artificial Barriers to Wave Action     333
Areas of Severe Erosion     337
Beach Replenishment     338
Erosion of Gently Sloping Coasts and Barrier Islands     341
Dunes     341
Barrier Bars at Estuaries and Inlets     343
Erosion Along Cliff-Bound Coasts      347
Letting Nature Take Its Course     349
Key Points     349
Important Words and Concepts     350
Questions for Review     350
Further Reading     350
Hurricanes and Nor'easters: The Big Winds     351
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones     351
Hurricanes Up Close: Hurricane Hugo     352
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale     355
Formation of Hurricanes and Cyclones     355
Case in Point: Hurricane Camille     357
Case in Point: Hurricane Isabel     358
Extratropical Cyclones, Including Nor'easters     362
Winter Windstorms and Heavy Snow     364
Case in Point: Superstorm, March 1993     365
Case in Point: Tropical Storm Allison     365
Storm Surges     368
Case in Point: Galveston Hurricane     372
Waves and Wave Damages     374
Winds and Wind Damages     375
Rainfall and Flooding     378
Case in Point: Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd, 1999     379
Deaths in Hurricanes     382
Case in Point: Hurricane Andrew     383
Poor Countries: Different Problems     384
Building Restrictions      385
Case in Point: Hurricane Mitch     386
Case in Point: Cyclones of Bangladesh and Calcutta, India     389
Hurricane Prediction and Warnings     391
Categories of Hurricane Warning     392
Hurricane Modification?     394
A More Damaging Hurricane than Any in Historic Time?     394
Key Points     395
Important Words and Concepts     396
Questions for Review     396
Further Reading     396
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes     397
Thunderstorms     397
Lightning     398
Downbursts     401
Hail     401
Tornadoes     401
The Fujita Scale     402
Tornado Development     407
Tornado Damage and Risks     407
Case in Point: Oklahoma Tornado Outbreak     411
Case in Point: Superoutbreak of 1974     412
Key Points     413
Important Words and Concepts     141
Questions for Review     414
Further Reading     414
Wildfires: Fanned Flames     415
Wildfires Up Close: The Black Mountain Fire, Missoula, Montana     416
Fire Process and Behavior      417
Case in Point: Storm King Mountain, Colorado     418
Case in Point: Southern California Firestorm, 2003     420
Fire Suppression and Prevention     422
Erosion Following Wildfires     422
Some Concerns     423
Case in Point; Bitterroot Valley Fires, Summer 2000     424
Key Points     426
Important Words and Concepts     426
Questions for Review     427
Further Reading     427
Impact of Asteroids and Comets     428
Projectiles from Space: The Ultimate Catastrophe?     428
Chondrites     430
Achondrites     430
Identification of Meteorites     430
Collision Course?     430
Evolution of an Impact Crater     431
Some Key Points and Evidence for an Impact     432
Case in Point: Meteor Crater, Arizona     433
Case in Point: Popigai Crater in Northern Siberia     434
Case in Point: The Studbury Complex, Ontario     436
Case in Point: Ries Crater in Germany     437
Chances of a Large Asteroid Impact on Earth     437
Likely Consequences of Impacts with Earth     437
Impact of a Large Asteroid     437
Case in Point: Chicxulub Impact Crater     438
A Modest-Sized Asteroid Impact     439
Doomsday?     439
What Could We Do About an Incoming Asteroid?     439
Falling Rocks: Your Personal Chance of Being Hit by a Meteorite?     440
Other Consequences of a Major Asteroid Impact     441
Lunar Maria     441
Case in Point: Tungusika, Siberia     441
Summary     441
Key Points     442
Important Words and Concepts     442
Questions for Review     442
Further Reading     443
The Future: Where Do We Go from Here?     444
We Are the Problem     444
Hazard Assessment and Mitigation     446
Societal Attitudes     446
Education     447
Different Ground Rules for the Poor     448
Key Points     450
Important Words and Concepts     450
Questions for Review     450
Further Reading     450
Hurricane Katrina: A Case Study of the Costliest Disaster in U.S. History     451
Hurricanes Up Close: Hurricane Katrina     452
Hurricane Katrina     453
Unfolding Events     453
Planning and Evacuation     453
Approach and Landfall     455
The Wind, Storm Surge, and Flood     456
The Pumps Fail     459
Contamination, Disease, and Mold     460
Relief Came Slowly     462
Deaths from the Hurricane     463
Financial Problems, Job Losses     463
The Poor Have Additional Problems     463
Impacts Farther South and East: The Hurricane Winds, Surge, and Waves     464
Insurance     467
Predictions, Warnings, and Preparation for the Approaching Storm     468
Disaster Response     468
What Went Wrong?     470
The Future of New Orleans?     471
Rebuilding?     471
Not the First Time nor the Last     471
Geological Time Scale     451
Mineral and Rock Characteristics Related to Hazards     452
Igneous Rocks     452
Sedimentary Rocks     452
Metamorphic Rocks     453
Weak Rocks and Strong Rocks     453
Common Rock-Forming Minerals     453
Common Rocks     457
Granite     457
Gabbro     457
Rhyolite     458
Andesite and Dacite      459
Basalt     459
Shale and Mudstone     460
Sandstone     460
Limestone     460
Slate     460
Schist     461
Gneiss     461
Serpentinite     462
Rocks, Landscapes, and Hazards     462
Conversion Factors     463
Glossary     465
Index     480

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