This book is a compiled contribution from experts in the field of natural polymers, and it is organized into two volumes. The purpose of this book is to provide an entire catalogue of natural polymers, beginning with their introduction, mass production, qualitative and quantitative characterization and leading to their advanced applications in every aspect of life (i.e. from food packaging to biomedical studies such as cancer treatments). Overall, it compiles all abundant natural polymers originating from both plant and animal resources such as cellulose, carrageenan, xanthum gum, chitin, chitosan, etc. The derivatives of these natural polymers in the form of hydrogels, blends and composites are also compiled with their recent societal benefits and applications.