Nature's Unruly Mob: Farming and the Crisis in Rural Culture

Nature's Unruly Mob: Farming and the Crisis in Rural Culture

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Growing up in the mostly wooded rural countryside of northern Wisconsin, in the decades immediately after the Second World War, meant immersion in cultural transformation. An economy of subsistence and self-provisioning was rapidly becoming industrialized and commercial. The culture of the local and small-scale was being overpowered by the metropolitan and large-scale. This experience provided the practical groundedness for exploring the decline and even the demise of small-scale farming, not just in northern Wisconsin, but as an example and illustration of how industrialization and globalization undermine local rural culture everywhere. Linked with an ecological critique that asserts the unsustainability of globalized industrialism, the exploration into the meaning of rural culture took on larger significance, especially when seen in relation to the collapse of all prior civilizations. In addition, the investigation into the origins of civilization revealed the predatory relationship civilization developed in regard to agriculture and rural life. The rampant globalization of civilization results in the destitution and impoverishment of agrarian culture. The question then becomes whether civilization has finally achieved the technical mastery by which to protect and extend itself permanently or whether its complexity only assures a more catastrophic collapse or whether civilization may learn to be flexible enough to merge with an essentially noncivilized folk culture to create a new cultural sensibility that enhances the best of both worlds. This is the question the entire world is now facing. Weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and peak oil all combine the force a resolution to this dilemma.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781621893950
Publisher: Wipf & Stock Publishers
Publication date: 06/03/2009
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 200
File size: 1 MB

About the Author

Born in 1946, Paul Gilk grew up on a small homestead farm in northern Wisconsin. From work horses, threshing crews and silo-filling rings, huge gardens, quilting bees and one-room schools, township demographics changed in twenty-five years from thirty farms to three. Returning to northern Wisconsin from St. Louis in 1979, Gilk built a cottage in the woods of what had been part of the family farm. Several years of intensive study followed. The question that preoccupied him was Why are small farms dying? In the early 1990s, he reconstructed a nineteenth-century log house and, in 1995, married Suzanna Juon. He has made a living by farm work, woods work, carpentry, writing, and folk music.

Table of Contents

Use of the Old Testament in the Apostolic Church     1
Reading of the O. T. in the Jewish Synagogues     1
This reading continued in the Christian churches     4
Was the canon of the O. T. closed then?     6
The bearing of the Septuagint on this question     7
The apostolic theory of inspiration     12
The Writings of the Apostles in the Primitive Church     15
How these writings were disseminated     15
How the custom arose of reading them in public     17
Their growing influence on Christian teaching     21
But no notion yet of any canon of Scripture     24
First Beginnings of a Collection of Apostolic Writings     28
The prejudice in favour of the early closing of the canon     28
Arguments advanced for the early closing     29
The inspiration of the apostles was not at first held to apply to their writings     33
Facts against the early closing     35
Examination of Christian writers between 130 and 180     37
Papias     37
Epistle to Diognetus     38
Hegesippus     39
Melito of Sardis     39
Claudius Apollinaris     40
Dionysius of Corinth     41
Treatise-against Montanism     42
Athenagoras ([dagger]117)     43
Letter from the Church of Lyons     44
Martyrdom of Polycarp     45
Martyrdom of Ignatius     45
The Pastor of Hermas     45
Justin Martyr     46
Heresy     57
Attitude of heretical writers towards apostolic books     57
The Jewish Christians     58
The Gnostics     61
The attitude of both prove non-existence of a canon     64
Marcion's treatment of the gospels     66
Tatian's Diatessaron     69
The existence of pseudonymous books     71
Marcion and the Pauline epistles     72
Catholicism     77
Growing importance of tradition     77
And increasing value of the apostolic writings     79
Influence of Montanism and Gnosticism on the conception of Scripture     82
Opinion of certain Catholic writers-Theophilus of Antioch     84
Irenaeus and Tertullian     85
The Collections in Use towards the End of the Second Century     92
The Muratorian Canon (180-190)     94
Discussion of its statements     98
Irenaeus ([dagger]202)      103
Tertullian (190)     106
Clement of Alexandria (190)     112
Bibliography     117
Two distinct parts in the collection of the N.T.     117
The order of the books in the collection     120
The term Catholic Epistles     123
The Third Century     125
Slow progress of the canon in the third century     125
The Syriac version or Peschito     127
Origen (184-253)     129
The School of Alexandria and the Apocalypse     138
The Apostolic Constitutions     141
Cyprian of Carthage ([dagger]260)     144
The Fourth Century-Statistical Retrospective     146
Eusebius of Caesarea (270-340)     148
His difficulty about the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse     154
His position towards certain apocryphal books     156
Testimony of Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Clermontanus     158
The Bibles prepared for the Emperor Constantine     160
Attempts at Codification-The Eastern Church     163
Athanasius (296-373)     164
Gregory of Nazianzus ([dagger]390)     167
Cyril of Jerusalem ([dagger]386)     169
Didymus of Alexandria ([dagger]394 or 399)      171
Epiphanius of Salamis ([dagger]403)     172
The School of Antioch-Theodore of Mopsuestia ([dagger]428)     174
Chrysostom ([dagger]407)     175
Theodoret ([dagger]450)     177
Council of Laodicea (363)     180
Apostolic Canons     181
Attempts at Codification-The Western Church     185
Hilary of Poitiers ([dagger]368)     185
Philastrius of Brescia ([dagger]about 387)     187
Toranius Rufinus (410)     192
Different estimates of certain books in East and West     192
Jerome (329-420)     193
Augustine (354-430)     200
The Synod of Carthage (397)     205
The Epistle of Pope Innocent I. (405)     207
Theory and Terminology     208
Uncertainty still prevails about the canon     208
Results established by the previous chapters     210
Meaning of the term canon, canonical, etc.     217
The books placed by the Fathers in a second canon     220
Meaning of the term apocryphal     223
General criticism of the testimony of the Fathers     226
The Middle Ages     232
Various catalogues of the biblical books     232
The decree of Pope Gelasius I. (492-496)     233
The Synopsis of Holy Scripture     236
Junilius, De partibus legis divinoe     238
Cosmas Indopleustes (535)     240
Euthalius (459)     241
Leontius of Byzantium (590)     242
Anastasius Sinaita ([dagger]599)     242
Cassiodorius ([dagger]562)     242
Pope Gregory the Great ([dagger]604)     243
Isidore of Seville ([dagger]636)     244
The Council of Trullum (691-2)     247
John of Damascus ([dagger]754)     248
Nicephorus of Constantinople ([dagger]828)     249
Raban Maur of Mayence ([dagger]856)     250
The evidence of Bibles and Manuscripts     252
Peter of Clugny ([dagger]1156)     257
Hugo of St. Victor ([dagger]1141)     257
John of Salisbury ([dagger]1182)     258
Thomas Aquinas     258
Nicephorus Callistus (fourteenth century)     260
Peter of Blois ([dagger]1200), and Hugo of St. Cher ([dagger]1263)     261
Nicolas de Lyra ([dagger]1340)     262
The Albigenses, Cathari, and Waldenses     263
The Renaissance     266
Position of the canon at the end of the fourteenth century      266
Bull of Pope Eugenius IV. (1439)     267
Thomas Cajetanus     270
Erasmus     271
Official and Modern Catholicism     274
Decree of Council of Trent     275
Discussion of the decree     280
Sixtus of Sienna     282
Decisions of the Eastern Church     283
Metrophanes Kritopoulos (1625)     284
Cyrillus Lucaris (1629)     285
Present state of the canon in the Eastern Church     287
The Theology of the Reformers     290
The principles of the Reformation, and their application to the canon     290
Opinions of Calvin, Zwingle, and Petrus Vermilius     294
Statements in the Helvetic Confessions of Faith     298
Statements in the Scotch Confession and the thirty-nine Articles     299
All these base canonicity on the witness of the Holy Spirit     304
Practical difficulties of this theory     306
As seen in the position assigned to the Apocrypha     307
Opinions of Luther     320
His principle of canonicity     332
Opinions of Melanchthon, Brentz, Flacius     333
Carlstadt ([dagger]1541)     336
Translator's note on the position of the Apocrypha in early English Bibles     339
The Confessional Schools     341
The common neglect of the theologians of 17th century     341
Apparent adherence to the principles of Calvin and Luther     343
Gradual return to the principle of tradition     345
The treatment of the O. T. Apocrypha     352
Relation of the terms Scripture and Word of God     354
The Consensus Helveticus (1675)     357
Attacks made by Protestants on the Apocrypha     359
The Synod of Dort (1620)     362
Treatment of the N. T. books     363
The polemic of Martin Chemnitz     366
Criticism and the Church     371
Some words of retrospect and prospect     371
Influence of Protestant theology on the notion of the canon     373
Similarity of results among Protestants and Catholics     374
Growth of traditionalism in the Reformed Churches     376
Recoil from excessive traditionalism     379
Influence of Pietism on the Lutheran Church     382
Influence of Rationalism     385
Rise of the historical method     388
Semler     388
Semler's use of internal evidence     390
His theory of inspiration      393
His theory of the canon     396
Concluding remarks-hopes for the future     400

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