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Network and System Security

Network and System Security

by John R. Vacca

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Network and System Security provides focused coverage of network and system security technologies. It explores practical solutions to a wide range of network and systems security issues. Chapters are authored by leading experts in the field and address the immediate and long-term challenges in the authors’ respective areas of expertise. Coverage


Network and System Security provides focused coverage of network and system security technologies. It explores practical solutions to a wide range of network and systems security issues. Chapters are authored by leading experts in the field and address the immediate and long-term challenges in the authors’ respective areas of expertise. Coverage includes building a secure organization; cryptography; system intrusion; UNIX and Linux security; Internet security, intranet security; LAN security; wireless network security; cellular network security, RFID security, and more. This compilation of 13 chapters is tightly focused and ideally suited as an essential desk reference in this high-growth subject area.

  • Chapters contributed by leaders in the field covering foundational and practical aspects of system and network security, providing a new level of technical expertise not found elsewhere
  • Comprehensive and updated coverage of the subject area allows the reader to put current technologies to work
  • Presents methods of analysis and problem-solving techniques, enhancing the reader’s grasp of the material and ability to implement practical solutions

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Elsevier Science
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Network and System Security


Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-59749-536-3

Chapter One

Building a Secure Organization

John Mallery BKD, LLP

It seems logical that any business, whether a commercial enterprise or a not-for-profit business, would understand that building a secure organization is important to long-term success. When a business implements and maintains a strong security posture, it can take advantage of numerous benefits. An organization that can demonstrate an infrastructure protected by robust security mechanisms can potentially see a reduction in insurance premiums being paid. A secure organization can use its security program as a marketing tool, demonstrating to clients that it values their business so much that it takes a very aggressive stance on protecting their information. But most important, a secure organization will not have to spend time and money identifying security breaches and responding to the results of those breaches.

As of September 2008, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures, 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico had enacted legislation requiring notification of security breaches involving personal information. Security breaches can cost an organization significantly through a tarnished reputation, lost business, and legal fees. And numerous regulations, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA), and the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, require businesses to maintain the security of information. Despite the benefits of maintaining a secure organization and the potentially devastating consequences of not doing so, many organizations have poor security mechanisms, implementations, policies, and culture.

1. Obstacles to Security

In attempting to build a secure organization, we should take a close look at the obstacles that make it challenging to build a totally secure organization.

Security Is Inconvenient

Security, by its very nature, is inconvenient, and the more robust the security mechanisms, the more inconvenient the process becomes. Employees in an organization have a job to do; they want to get to work right away. Most security mechanisms, from passwords to multifactor authentication, are seen as roadblocks to productivity. One of the current trends in security is to add whole disk encryption to laptop computers. Although this is a highly recommended security process, it adds a second login step before a computer user can actually start working. Even if the step adds only one minute to the login process, over the course of a year this adds up to four hours of lost productivity. Some would argue that this lost productivity is balanced by the added level of security. But across a large organization, this lost productivity could prove significant.

To gain a full appreciation of the frustration caused by security measures, we have only to watch the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) security lines at any airport. Simply watch the frustration build as a particular item is run through the scanner for a third time while a passenger is running late to board his flight. Security implementations are based on a sliding scale; one end of the scale is total security and total inconvenience, the other is total insecurity and complete ease of use. When we implement any security mechanism, it should be placed on the scale where the level of security and ease of use match the acceptable level of risk for the organization.

Computers Are Powerful and Complex

Home computers have become storehouses of personal materials. Our computers now contain wedding videos, scanned family photos, music libraries, movie collections, and financial and medical records. Because computers contain such familiar objects, we have forgotten that computers are very powerful and complex devices. It wasn't that long ago that computers as powerful as our desktop and laptop computers would have filled one or more very large rooms. In addition, today's computers present a "user-friendly" face to the world. Most people are unfamiliar with the way computers truly function and what goes on "behind the scenes." Things such as the Windows Registry, ports, and services are completely unknown to most users and poorly understood by many computer industry professionals. For example, many individuals still believe that a Windows login password protects data on a computer. On the contrary—someone can simply take the hard drive out of the computer, install it as a slave drive in another computer, or place it in a USB drive enclosure, and all the data will be readily accessible.

Computer Users Are Unsophisticated

Many computer users believe that because they are skilled at generating spreadsheets, word processing documents, and presentations, they "know everything about computers." These "power users" have moved beyond application basics, but many still do not understand even basic security concepts. Many users will indiscriminately install software and visit questionable Web sites despite the fact that these actions could violate company policies. The "bad guys"—people who want to steal information from or wreak havoc on computers systems—have also identified that the average user is a weak link in the security chain. As companies began investing more money in perimeter defenses, attackers look to the path of least resistance. They send malware as attachments to email, asking recipients to open the attachment. Despite being told not to open attachments from unknown senders or simply not to open attachments at all, employees consistently violate this policy, wreaking havoc on their networks. The "I Love You Virus" spread very rapidly in this manner. More recently, phishing scams have been very effective in convincing individuals to provide their personal online banking and credit-card information. Why would an attacker struggle to break through an organization's defenses when end users are more than willing to provide the keys to bank accounts? Addressing the threat caused by untrained and unwary end users is a significant part of any security program.

Computers Created Without a Thought to Security

During the development of personal computers (PCs), no thought was put into security. Early PCs were very simple affairs that had limited computing power and no keyboards and were programmed by flipping a series of switches. They were developed almost as curiosities. Even as they became more advanced and complex, all effort was focused on developing greater sophistication and capabilities; no one thought they would have security issues. We only have to look at some of the early computers, such as the Berkeley Enterprises Geniac, the Heathkit EC-1, or the MITS Altair 8800, to understand why security was not an issue back then. The development of computers was focused on what they could do, not how they could be attacked.

As computers began to be interconnected, the driving force was providing the ability to share information, certainly not to protect it. Initially the Internet was designed for military applications, but eventually it migrated to colleges and universities, the principal tenet of which is the sharing of knowledge.

Current Trend Is to Share, Not Protect

Even now, despite the stories of compromised data, people still want to share their data with everyone. And Web-based applications are making this easier to do than simply attaching a file to an email. Social networking sites such as SixApart provide the ability to share material: "Send messages, files, links, and events to your friends. Create a network of friends and share stuff. It's free and easy ..." In addition, many online data storage sites such as DropSend and FilesAnywhere provide the ability to share files. Although currently in the beta state of development, Swivel provides the ability to upload data sets for analysis and comparison. These sites can allow proprietary data to leave an organization by bypassing security mechanisms.

Data Accessible from Anywhere

As though employees' desire to share data is not enough of a threat to proprietary information, many business professionals want access to data from anywhere they work, on a variety of devices. To be productive, employees now request access to data and contact information on their laptops, desktops, home computers, and mobile devices. Therefore, information technology (IT) departments must now provide the ability to sync data with numerous devices. And if the IT department can't or won't provide this capability, employees now have the power to take matters into their own hands.

Previously mentioned online storage sites can be accessed from both the home and office or anywhere there is an Internet connection. Though it might be possible to block access to some of these sites, it is not possible to block access to them all. And some can appear rather innocuous. For many, Google's free email service Gmail is a great tool that provides a very robust service for free. What few people realize is that Gmail provides more than 7 GB of storage that can also be used to store files, not just email. The Gspace plug-in for the Firefox browser provides an FTP-like interface within Firefox that gives users the ability to transfer files from a computer to their Gmail accounts. This ability to easily transfer data outside the control of a company makes securing an organization's data that much more difficult.

Security Isn't About Hardware and Software

Many businesses believe that if they purchase enough equipment, they can create a secure infrastructure. Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, antivirus programs, and two-factor authentication products are just some of the tools available to assist in protecting a network and its data. It is important to keep in mind that no product or combination of products will create a secure organization by itself. Security is a process; there is no tool that you can "set and forget." All security products are only as secure as the people who configure and maintain them. The purchasing and implementation of security products should be only a percentage of the security budget. The employees tasked with maintaining the security devices should be provided with enough time, training, and equipment to properly support the products. Unfortunately, in many organizations security activities take a back seat to support activities. Highly skilled security professionals are often tasked with help-desk projects such as resetting forgotten passwords, fixing jammed printers, and setting up new employee workstations.

The Bad Guys Are Very Sophisticated

At one time the computer hacker was portrayed as a lone teenager with poor social skills who would break into systems, often for nothing more than bragging rights. As ecommerce has evolved, however, so has the profile of the hacker.

Now that there are vast collections of credit-card numbers and intellectual property that can be harvested, organized hacker groups have been formed to operate as businesses. A document released in 2008 spells it out clearly: "Cybercrime companies that work much like real-world companies are starting to appear and are steadily growing, thanks to the profits they turn. Forget individual hackers or groups of hackers with common goals. Hierarchical cybercrime organizations where each cybercriminal has his or her own role and reward system are what you and your company should be worried about."

Now that organizations are being attacked by highly motivated and skilled groups of hackers, creating a secure infrastructure is mandatory.

Management Sees Security as a Drain on the Bottom Line

For most organizations, the cost of creating a strong security posture is seen as a necessary evil, similar to purchasing insurance. Organizations don't want to spend the money on it, but the risks ofnot making the purchase outweigh thecosts. Because ofthis attitude, it is extremely challenging to create a secure organization. The attitude is enforced because requests for security tools are often supported by documents providing the average cost of a security incident instead of showing more concrete benefits of a strong security posture. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that IT professionals speak a different language than management. IT professionals are generally focused on technology, period. Management is focused on revenue. Concepts such as profitability, asset depreciation, return on investment, realization, and total cost of ownership are the mainstays of management. These are alien concepts to most IT professionals.

Realistically speaking, though it would be helpful if management would take steps to learn some fundamentals of information technology, IT professionals should take the initiative and learn some fundamental business concepts. Learning these concepts is beneficial to the organization because the technical infrastructure can be implemented in a cost-effective manner, and they are beneficial from a career development perspective for IT professionals.

A Google search on "business skills for IT professionals" will identify numerous educational programs that might prove helpful. For those who do not have the time or the inclination to attend a class, some very useful materials can be found online. One such document provided by the Government Chief Information Office of New South Wales is A Guide for Government Agencies Calculating Return on Security Investment. Though extremely technical, another often cited document is Cost-Benefit Analysis for Network Intrusion Detection Systems, by Huaqiang Wei, Deb Frinke, Olivia Carter, and Chris Ritter.

Regardless of the approach that is taken, it is important to remember that any tangible cost savings or revenue generation should be utilized when requesting new security products, tools, or policies. Security professionals often overlook the value of keeping Web portals open for employees. A database that is used by a sales staff to enter contracts or purchases or check inventory will help generate more revenue if it has no downtime. A database that is not accessible or has been hacked is useless for generating revenue.

Strong security can be used to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Having secured systems that are accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week means that an organization can reach and communicate with its clients and prospective clients more efficiently. An organization that becomes recognized as a good custodian of client records and information can incorporate its security record as part of its branding. This is no different than a car company being recognized for its safety record. In discussions of cars and safety, for example, Volvo is always the first manufacturer mentioned.

What must be avoided is the "sky is falling" mentality. There are indeed numerous threats to a network, but we need to be realistic in allocating resources to protect against these threats. As of this writing, the National Vulnerability Database sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) lists 33,428 common vulnerabilities and exposures and publishes 18 new vulnerabilities per day. In addition, the media is filled with stories of stolen laptops, credit-card numbers, and identities. The volume of threats to a network can be mind numbing. It is important to approach management with "probable threats" as opposed to "describable threats." Probable threats are those that are most likely to have an impact on your business and the ones most likely to get the attention of management.

Perhaps the best approach is to recognize that management, including the board of directors, is required to exhibit a duty of care in protecting their assets that is comparable to other organizations in their industry. When a security breach or incident occurs, being able to demonstrate the high level of security within the organization can significantly reduce exposure to lawsuits, fines, and bad press.

The goal of any discussion with management is to convince them that in the highly technical and interconnected world we live in, having a secure network and infrastructure is a "nonnegotiable requirement of doing business." An excellent resource for both IT professionals and executives that can provide insight into these issues is CERT's technical report, Governing for Enterprise Security.

2. Ten Steps to Building a Secure Organization

Having identified some of the challenges to building a secure organization, let's now look at 10 ways to successfully build a secure organization. The following steps will put a business in a robust security posture.


Excerpted from Network and System Security Copyright © 2010 by Elsevier Inc.. Excerpted by permission of SYNGRESS. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Meet the Author

John Vacca is an information technology consultant, researcher, professional writer, Editor, reviewer, and internationally-known best-selling author based in Pomeroy, Ohio. Since 1982, John has authored/edited 79 books (some of his most recent books include):

  • Security in the Private Cloud (Publisher: CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor&Francis Group, LLC) (September 1, 2016))
  • Cloud Computing Security: Foundations and Challenges (Publisher: CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor&Francis Group, LLC) (August 19, 2016))
  • Handbook of Sensor Networking: Advanced Technologies and Applications (Publisher: CRC Press (an imprint of Taylor&Francis Group, LLC) (January 14, 2015))
  • Network and System Security, Second Edition, 2E (Publisher: Syngress (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (September 23, 2013))
  • Cyber Security and IT Infrastructure Protection (Publisher: Syngress (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (September 23, 2013))
  • Managing Information Security, Second Edition, 2E (Publisher: Syngress (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (September 23, 2013))
  • Computer and Information Security Handbook, 2E (Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (May 31, 2013))
  • Identity Theft (Cybersafety) (Publisher: Chelsea House Pub (April 1, 2012))
  • System Forensics, Investigation, And Response (Publisher: Jones&Bartlett Learning (September 24, 2010))
  • Managing Information Security (Publisher: Syngress (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (March 29, 2010))
  • Network and Systems Security (Publisher: Syngress (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (March 29, 2010))
  • Computer and Information Security Handbook, 1E (Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann (an imprint of Elsevier Inc.) (June 2, 2009))
  • Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems (Publisher: Elsevier Science&Technology Books (March 16, 2007))
  • Practical Internet Security (Hardcover): (Publisher: Springer (October 18, 2006))
  • Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook (Hardcover): (Publisher: Wiley-Interscience (November 28, 2006))
  • Guide to Wireless Network Security (Publisher: Springer (August 19, 2006))

He has written more than 600 articles in the areas of advanced storage, computer security and aerospace technology (copies of articles and books are available upon request).

John was also a configuration management specialist, computer specialist, and the computer security official (CSO) for NASA's space station program (Freedom) and the International Space Station Program, from 1988 until his retirement from NASA in 1995.

In addition, John is also an independent online book reviewer. Finally, John was one of the security consultants for the MGM movie titled: "AntiTrust," which was released on January 12, 2001. A detailed copy of Johns author bio can be viewed at URL: http://www.johnvacca.com. John can be reached at: john2164@windstream.net.

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