Networking Quality of Service and Windows Operating Systems

Networking Quality of Service and Windows Operating Systems

Hardcover(1 ED)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781578702060
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 11/14/2000
Series: Technology Series
Edition description: 1 ED
Pages: 736
Product dimensions: 7.58(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.73(d)

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Quality of Service

There are many different interpretations regarding the definition of Quality of Service (QoS). To some, QoS may have little to do with anything that happens in a network. Some might believe QoS refers to the service offered by a CPU in rendering a video image on a locally attached disk. Others might have different misconceptions. For example, I recently visited a major bank to speak to them about our QoS work. I found myself presenting to the quality control group. They thought I would be speaking about quality control processes in an enterprise.

Before delving into the subject matter, it is important to define QoS from the perspective of this book and to establish a basic vocabulary for further discussion. This chapter first defines network QoS and then introduces a taxonomy that will be used throughout the book. It introduces the fundamental components of the QoS network: traffic handling mechanisms and the means to coordinate these mechanisms across multiple devices. It concludes with a discussion of policy components.

1.1 Defining Network QoS

Assume the following simplistic view of the host/network system: Applications run on hosts and exchange information with their peers. These applications send data by submitting it to the operating system to be carried across the network. After data has been submitted to the operating system for transmission, it becomes network traffic.

Note

Throughout this book, the term host refers to a source or sink of network traffic. As such, hosts are differentiated from switches, routers, and similar network devices that carry traffic but neither source nor sink traffic.The most common example of a host is a PC.

Network QoS is defined as

The capability to control traffic-handling mechanisms in the network such that the network meets the service needs of certain applications and users subject to network policies.

Note that the emphasis is on the "capability to control traffic-handling mechanisms ...subject to network policies." The network manager is thus the direct beneficiary of network QoS because QoS provides the tools necessary to effectively manage network resources. However, the network manager sells network services that are ultimately paid for by the end users of networked applications. Therefore, the manager can be expected to operate the network in a manner that maximizes its utility to the paying customers. As a result, end users benefit from improved services for their applications.

Although QoS could be defiled passively-as the service quality experienced by traffic transiting the network-this book defines QoS more actively. Throughout this book, QoS refers to the set of mechanisms that can be brought to bear in controlling the service quality experienced by traffic transiting the network. Providing network QoS relies on fundamental traffic-handling mechanisms and the capability to identify traffic and to associate it with the appropriate traffic-handling mechanism. Consider a very simple analogy from the life of a commuter: Route 520, which takes me from my house to Microsoft every day, is analogous to a network route. One of its traffichandling mechanisms is a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane. The HOV lane can be used subject to a policy. The policy states that carpooling traffic is entitled to use the HOV lane. The HOV lane benefits the authorities that manage traffic by optimizing the use of the roads. It also benefits commuters who carpool by reducing their commuting time. Note that drivers who use the HOV lane, as well as drivers who do not, experience QoS. The QoS experienced by those who use the HOV lane is, arguably, better than that experienced by those who do not.

1.1.1 The Network

For the purpose of the following discussion, a network consists of the following:

  • The sending operating system's network stack
  • All network components between sender and receiver
  • The receiving operating system's network stack
The network stack in the host operating system is considered part of the network. As such, the host is an integral part of the QoS-enabled network, as illustrated in Figure 1.1...

Table of Contents

Introduction1
Part I
1Introduction to Quality of Service7
1.1Defining Network QoS7
1.2Network Resources10
1.3Traffic-Handling Mechanisms14
1.4Provisioning and Configuration Mechanisms21
1.5Summary29
2The Quality/Efficiency Product: The Reason to QoS-Enable a Network31
2.1Tradeoffs in the QoS-Enabled Network32
2.2Raising the QE Product of a Network36
2.3The Value of Different QoS Mechanisms in Raising the QE Product of a Network39
2.4Illustrative Examples43
2.5Sharing Network Resources: Multiple Resource Pools54
2.6Summary57
Part II
3Queuing Mechanisms61
3.1Formation of Queues62
3.2Taxonomy of Queuing Mechanisms66
3.3Evaluation of Queuing Schemes71
3.4Examples of Work-Conserving Queuing Schemes72
3.5Examples of Non-Work-Conserving Queuing Schemes83
3.6Link Sharing and Class-Based Queuing90
3.7Examples of Dropping Schemes93
3.8Application of Queuing Schemes95
3.9Summary99
4Integrated Services101
4.1Overview of the IntServ Architecture102
4.2The Services of the IntServ Model114
4.3Integrated Services Over Specific Link Layers127
4.4Summary128
5RSVP131
5.1The History of RSVP131
5.2RSVP Concepts136
5.3RSVP Messages and Basic Protocol Operation140
5.4Multicast Operation149
5.5Policy and Security159
5.6Enhancements to RSVP162
5.7Issues in the Application of RSVP180
5.8Summary188
6Differentiated Services191
6.1The History and Background of Differentiated Services191
6.2Differentiated Service Architecture and Concepts193
6.3Standard Per-Hop Behaviors197
6.4Providing Services201
6.5Traffic Conditioning210
6.6Using Traffic-Conditioning Blocks to Build Differentiated Services217
6.7Provisioning the DiffServ Network228
6.8Policy in the DiffServ Network235
6.9DiffServ with RSVP238
6.10Issues in DiffServ244
6.11Summary249
7The Subnet Bandwidth Manager and 802 Networks251
7.1user_priority252
7.2Using RSVP with 802 Networks--the SBM and SBM Protocol262
7.3Supporting Heterogeneous Senders on 802 Subnets286
7.4Summary291
8QoS over Layer 2 Media Other Than 802293
8.1ATM and QoS294
8.2Frame Relay and QoS314
8.3QoS on Low-Bit Rate Links321
8.4Summary334
9QoS Policy337
9.1Defining the Concept of Policy337
9.2Layers and Components of a Policy System346
9.3Applying Policies362
9.4Administrative Domains and Bandwidth Brokers402
9.5Summary407
10Putting the Pieces Together--End-to-End QoS409
10.1The Sample Network410
10.2A-1 Corporation's Main Campus Network413
10.3A-1 Corporation's Remote Networks457
10.4University Campus Network461
10.5Provider Networks465
10.6The Cable Network475
10.7Summary478
Part III
11The Microsoft QoS Components483
11.1Components Residing in the Host Operating System483
11.2Policy Enforcement Components--the SBM and the ACS493
11.3Summary495
12The GQoS API and the QoS Service Provider497
12.1Overview of the GQoS API497
12.2Usage of the GQoS API501
12.3Behavior of the QoS Service Provider514
12.4Application Considerations530
12.5Enhancements Supporting Nonpersistent Applications540
12.6Functionality Supported on Different Platforms541
12.7Summary542
13The Traffic Control API and Traffic Control Components545
13.1Overview of Traffic Control Components and Their Functionality545
13.2The Traffic Control API558
13.3The Structure and Behavior of the Packet Scheduler562
13.4The Structure and Behavior of ATMARP583
13.5Behavior of Two Traffic Control Consumers587
13.6Special Uses of Traffic Control592
13.7Summary593
14The Microsoft Admission Control Service595
14.1The SBM and the ACS--Microsoft's QoS Policy Infrastructure596
14.2Microsoft's SBM600
14.3Policy-Based Admission Control605
14.4Provisioning and Configuring ACS-Based QoS Policies in an Enterprise Network609
14.5Deployment Scenarios and Considerations623
14.6ACS Extensibility629
14.7Security632
14.8Summary633
Part IV
ATroubleshooting and Demonstrating Windows 2000 QoS Functionality637
A.1QoS Troubleshooting Tools637
A.2Review of Windows QoS and Host/Network Interaction645
A.3Troubleshooting Methodology648
A.4Demonstrating Windows 2000 Signaled QoS661
BReferences671
Index677

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Networking Quality of Service and Windows Operating Systems 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 2 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
The book - Networking Quality of Service and Windows Operating Systems provides an in-depth introduction to Quality of Service followed by a set of theoretical applications of QoS mechanisms to network engineering scenarios. The beginning of the book contains the requisite presentation of QoS queuing mechanisms, and IETF work in both the Integrated and Differentiated Services areas. There is also a good discussion on the issues surrounding policy management in QoS enabled networks. However this books' primary value (and worth its price alone,) are 1) it's discussion of the Quality of Service implementation on the Microsoft Windows 2000 platform. It is essential for anyone developing and hosting QoS enabled applications on the Windows platform. It provides in-depth discussion of the Windows Generic QoS API, QoS Service provider, as well as the traffic control API, and traffic control components including a great discussion on the internal queuing for QoS enabled applications. In the final chapter, the author covers Microsoft value added services for Quality of Service with a discussion of the Access Control Server (ACS) and Subnet Bandwidth Manager(SBM). 2) the authors' intimate knowledge and vision really show with his introduction of a Quality/Efficiency Product (or Q/E product) for QoS enabled networks. This idea is outlined in chapter two, and further referenced in threads throughout the remaining chapters of the book and provides a measurement tool for determining the efficiency of the network over differing QoS mechanisms. The Q/E product - if automated - would go a long way to providing networks with dynamic tools for near real-time QoS provisioning processes inside the network. The Q/E product could provide the foundation on which policy automation and dynamic resource reconfiguration could take place. The Q/E product for a network could be adjusted when promoting applications into or demoting applications out of the QoS space in a network. The impacts of which would be known to existing network SLA's. Although this idea is in its infancy, it provides food for thought to those doing future network research and development in the area of QoS tools and automation. I highly recommend this book to Networking Engineers, Application and Network Developers, as well as Network Performance and Management planners.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Over the past year I've read a lot of material regarding QoS. I wish this book was in print when I first started researching QoS! This book is very well written and comprehensive. Not only does it do a excellent job of explaining how QoS is incorporated in Microsoft Windows, it also provides in-depth information regarding all the protocols, algorithms, and mechanisms that make up QoS. This book ties it all together very nicely.