Insects as a group occupy a middle ground in the biosphere between bac teria and viruses at one extreme, amphibians and mammals at the other. The size and general nature of insects present special problems to the student of entomology. For example, many commercially available in struments are geared to measure in grams, while the forces commonly en countered in studying insects are in the milligram range. Therefore, tech the study of insects or in those fields concerned with niques developed in the control of insect pests are often unique. Methods for measuring things are common to all sciences. Advances sometimes depend more on how something was done than on what was measured; indeed a given field often progresses from one technique to another as new methods are discovered, developed, and modified. Just as often, some of these techniques find their way into the classroom when the problems involved have been sufficiently ironed out to permit students to master the manipulations in a few laboratory periods. Many specialized techniques are confined to one specific research labo ratory. Although methods may be considered commonplace where they are used, in another context even the simplest procedures may save con siderable time. It is the purpose of this series (1) to report new develop ments in methodology, (2) to reveal sources of groups who have dealt with and solved particular entomological problems, and (3) to describe ex periments which might be applicable for use in biology laboratory courses.
Table of Contents1 Proctolin: Bioassay, Isolation, and Structure.- I. Introduction.- II. Bioassay.- III. Chemistry.- References.- 2 Adipokinetic Hormone.- I. Introduction.- II. Biological (Bioassay).- III. Chemical.- References.- 3 Bioassay of Diuretic Hormone in Rhodnius.- I. Introduction.- II. Isolation of Malpighian Tubules from Rhodnius.- References.- 4 Diuretic HormoneExtraction and Chemical Properties.- I. Introduction.- II. Assay of Hormone Activity.- III. Isolation of Diuretic Hormone Storage Tissue.- IV. Methods of Fractionation.- V. High K+ Release of Diuretic Hormone In Vitro.- VI. Properties.- VII. Cross-Reactivity of Insect Diuretic Hormones.- VIII. Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 5 Insulin-like and Glucagon-like Hormones in Insects.- I. Introduction.- II. Preparation of Tissue Extract.- III. Purification of Extract and Heterogeneity.- IV. Biological Assay.- V. Radioimmunoassay.- VI. Immunocytochemistry.- VII. Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgement.- References.- Note Added in Proof.- 6 Bursicon.- I. Introduction.- II. Purification of Bursicon.- III. Assays for Bursicon Activity.- References.- 7 Neurohormonal Factors Involved in the Control of Pupariation.- I. What are the Pupariation Factors?.- II. Choice of Material.- III. Breeding Technique.- IV. Staging of the Larvae for Experiments on Pupanation.- V Methods of Observing and Recording Pupariation.- VI Bioassays for the Activity of the Pupariation Factors.- VII. Materials Possessing Activity of the Pupariation Factors.- VIII Chemical Identification of the Pupariation Factors.- IX. Remarks to the Mode of Action of the Pupariation Factors.- References.- 8 Cuticle Plasticizing Factors.- I. Introduction.- II. Bioassay.- III. Chemistry.- References.- 9 Eclosion Hormones.- I. Introduction.- II. Bioassay.- III. Chemistry: Isolation and Purification.- IV. Properties.- V. Biological Activity of the Purified Hormone.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 10 Diapause Hormones.- I. Introduction.- II. Materials.- III. Bioassay.- IV. Extraction.- V. Chromatographic Separation.- VI. Selective Extraction.- VII. Chromatography on Merckogel OR.- VIII. Isolation of DH-A and DH-B.- IX. Molecular Weight 233.- X. Stability of DH in Relation to Degree of Purity.- XL Activity of the Two Species.- XII. Stability and Characters.- XIII. Infrared Spectra.- XIV. Constituents.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 11 Prothoracicotropic Hormone.- I. Introduction.- II. What is Known?-Biological.- III. Bioassay.- IV. Chemistry.- References.